MODEL TEST ONE答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

Sea Ice

    Sea ice surrounding Antarctica reached a new record high extent this year. / It covers more of the southern oceans than it has / since scientists began a long-term satellite record / to map sea ice extent in the late 1970s. / However, the upward trend in the Antarctic / is only about a third of the rapid loss of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. / The new Antarctic sea ice record reflects / the diversity and complexity of Earth's environments. / A senior scientist has referred to changes in sea ice coverage / as a result of global climate change.
【闪光词汇】

satellite n.卫星
Antarctica n.南极洲
rapid adj.快速的
the Arctic Ocean 北冰洋
diversity n.多样性,差异
complexity n.复杂性

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A 【听力原文】

How to Be Effective Readers?

    Good morning, in today's lecture, we’ll discuss how to be effective readers. I'd like to spend some time discussing with you the following topics: What is reading? How can we read effectively? And what are the skills of reading?
    (1)First of all, I'd say, reading is a method of absorbing written information. It mainly contains two aspects: the degree of comprehension and the reading speed.(2)Our reading ability is closely related to our vocabulary,cultural background knowledge and reading techniques. However, we vary widely in every significant aspect—intelligence, language skills, interest, etc.So we are supposed to recognize our individual differences and work hard to be effective readers. In my opinion, there are many things that we could do. (3)Firstly, we should develop a love of reading by making reading a regular and enjoyable activity. Secondly, we should have a dear purpose in reading. (4)And we should know why we need to improve our reading speed and use different strategies for different reading tasks. Thirdly, developing good reading habits is quite important. (5)We should concentrate on the important parts, skim the rest,and skip the insignificant parts. Sometimes we should read silently rather than read aloud.
    Secondly, I'd like to say, generally speaking, reading programs for different levels of readers have different focuses and emphasize specific reading skills. (6)Programs for beginners generally focus on developing a basic reading vocabulary,decoding skills and reading for meaning. (7)Programs for intermediate or advanced readers are shifted to expanding vocabulary, (8refining comprehension skills and mastering skills. In order to make reading more efficient, it is necessary for us to know some reading strategic skills. Skimming and scanning are two specific reading strategic skills for quick and efficient reading. (9)The purpose of skimming is to find the main idea of the passage. Readers often do skimming when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. When skimming, readers only try to locate specific information and they often do not even follow the development of the story. (10)Scanning is another technique readers often use when looking up a word in a telephone book or dictionary to search for key words or ideas. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page to seek specific words and phrases.
    Based on this, I will introduce to you three strategies which may help you to conduct effective reading. First, make sure the books are specific to your age and reading levels. Second, find some background information which relates to the book before reading. Third, leave plenty of time for reflection and let yourself be free to develop imagination at the end of the reading.
    OK, today we had a brief look at the ways to be effective readers, and the skills of reading as well. Undoubtedly, reading is always beneficial. I hope you'll enjoy reading and keep reading after today's lecture. Thank you for your attention.
【精解精析】
1.written information
【定位】First of all, I'd say, reading is a method of absorbing written information.(第二段第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,作者认为读书首先是对书面信息的吸收,此处缺少名词,故填入written information。
2.reading techniques
【定位】Our reading ability is closely related to our vocabulary, cultural background knowledge and reading techniques.(第二段第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,作者认为人们的阅读能力是和几个因素紧密相联的:词汇、文化背景以及阅读技巧。此处缺少“阅读技巧”,故填入reading techniques。
3.love of reading
【定位】Firstly,we should develop a love of reading by making reading a regular and enjoyable activity.(第二段第七句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,对于想要成为有效率的阅读者来说,作者所给的第一个建议是:通过使阅读成为一个常规并且令人愉悦的活动来培养对阅读的热爱。故填入love of reading。
4.different reading tasks
【定位】And we should know why we need to improve our reading speed and use different strategies for different reading tasks.(第二段第九句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,作者认为成为有效率的阅读者还应该知道为何我们需要提高自己的阅读速度,以及针对不同的阅读任务采取不同的阅读技巧。此处缺少的是“不同的阅读任务”,故填入different reading tasks。
5.skimming the rest
【定位】We should concentrate on the important parts,skim the rest,and skip the insignificant parts.(第二段第十一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,阅读时我们应该将注意力集中在重要的部分,快速地浏览剩下的部分,并将不重要的部分省略。此处缺少的是“快速地浏览剩下的部分”,又根据上下文可知,此处应填入动名词形式,故填入skimming the rest。
6.decoding
【定位】Programs for beginners generally focus on developing a basic reading vocabulary, decoding skills and reading for meaning.(第三段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,作者认为对于初学者来说,主要将精力集中于发展基本的阅读词汇、理解技巧以及理解阅读内容的意思上。根据空格后的skills可知,此处应填入动词的动名词形式,故填入decoding。
7.intermediate
【定位】Programs for intermediate or advanced readers are shifted to expanding vocabulary...(第三段第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,对于中等水平或者高级水平的读者来说,主要应将精力集中于扩大词汇量上面。根据空格后的or advanced readers可知,此处应填入形容词“中等水平”的,故填入intermediate。
8.refining
【定位】...refining comprehension skills and mastering skills.(第三段第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,对于中等水平或者高级水平的读者来说,主要应将精力集中于扩大词汇量以及改善理解技巧和掌握技巧上面。此处缺少动词,根据上下文可知,此处应填入动名词形式,故填入refining。
9.main idea
【定位】The purpose of skimming is to find the main idea of the passage.(第三段第六句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,略读的目的是为了找出文章的主旨。故填入main idea。
10.key words
【定位】Scanning is another technique readers often use when looking up a word in a telephone book or dictionary to search for key words or ideas.(第三段第九句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,浏览是读者在经常使用的另一个技巧,尤其是当读者在电话簿中找一个词或者在词典中寻找关键词、关键点的时候。故填入key words。
【闪光词汇】

contain v.包含,囊括
comprehension n.理解
individual adj.个人的,单个的
limited adj.有限的
locate v.定位
emphasize v.强调
undoubtedly adv.毫无疑问地

SECTION B Conversation One
【听力原文】
M: I'm Avi Arditti, and this week on “Wordmaster”: a lesson in complaining, English teacher Linda Baker is with us from Los Angeles to discuss this topic. Welcome, Linda.
W: Thanks. Well, as far as I know, the first part of any complaint is a factual statement about what the problem is. (1)But there's another part to learn that's more important. There are students from a lot of cultures where this cultural behavior we have in the United States of being very straightforward about what we think and what we want—that's the part that would be a lot harder for them than the linguistic part of complaining, which is just saying “here is the problem.”
M: It's OK in the United States to complain,and I think this is something that a student would have to understand before he or she could actually put the complaint into action. But Linda, How would you teach?
W: I think in teaching, (2)the first step is providing that cultural background, such as the return policy of a store, and understanding that it isn't the same from one store to the next. I had an incident a few weeks ago where I bought some clothes for my daughter from a store, because she wasn't with me at the time, I just assumed that if they didn't fit I could bring them back. And they didn't fit, and I went back to the store, and to my utter surprise this store would not return my money. I was very shocked because I was used to shopping in stores that provided you with a full refund for your money.
M: I have here an example of a complaint letter. It was written to this clothing company. And this is a letter about some shoes, and it begins “To Whom It May Concern: on September 20, I ordered a pair of brown leather Peace Mules for $36.99, which includes $4.99 for shipping and handling. When they were delivered to my home, the package was wet and the leather shoes were ruined. I am returning the shoes. I realize the shipping and handling fee is non-refundable, (3)but I would like the original amount of $32 to be refunded.Thank you for your attention to this matter. Sincerely...” and she signs it here. So what do you think of that?
W: I think that's a perfect letter of complaint. (4)She states what the problem is. She states what correction she would like the company to make. The tone is neutral; she doesn't come across as angry or demanding. What is much harder, of course, is for people to get experience complaining verbally, in person. And so once we have demonstrated several scenarios in which complaining takes place, and we've analyzed the language and structures that go into complaining, (5)the final step and perhaps the most important one—is to give students practice complaining in a sheltered environment; in other words, in the classroom. And I would do that by means of role playing.
M: That's all for this week. Thank you for your valuable advice, Linda.
W: You are welcome.
1.What is more difficult for students when learning to complain?
2.Why did Linda Baker mention her experience of returning her daughters' clothes?
3.In the example of the complaint letter, how much does she what to refund?
4.What is considered unnecessary in a letter of complaint?
5.What is the most important part of teaching complaining?
【精解精析】
1.B【解析】题目问:在学习投诉时,对学生来说比较困难的是什么?由句(1)可知,在美国,“直白”的文化行为使学生们感到尤其的困难。故选B。
2.A【解析】题目问:为什么琳达·贝克提及她退还自己的女儿衣服的经历?对话中,琳达提及退还给女儿买的衣服的经历,由句(2)可知,她主要的目的是想强调文化背景的重要性,A项符合题意,故选A。
3.D【解析】题目问:在所给出的样板投诉信中,女士想要的退款是多少?在信中,女士提出由于货物损毁,她想要退款,由句(3)可知,她只想要退回货物的款项,至于运费她表示可以不退回,所以应该退回32美元,故选D。
4.D【解析】题目问:在一封投诉信中,什么是不必要的部分?对话中,琳达对于所给的投诉信进行了评价,她认为这封投诉信是完美的,由句(4)可知,琳达认为这封信包含了所有必须的内容:所投诉的问题、所期待的解决方案以及客观的语气。D项不属于这些内容,故选D。
5.D【解析】题目问:教授学生抱怨的最重要的部分是什么?由句(5)可知,琳达提到最重要的部分是让学生练习投诉,例如通过角色扮演的方式,故选D。
【闪光词汇】

complaint n.抱怨,投诉
straightforward adj.直接的,直白的
assume v.假设,认为
package n.包裹
non-refundable adj.不可退回的
demonstrate v.证明
valuable adj.珍贵的

Conversation Two
【听力原文】
M: Hi, Tracy! It's so fine to have you here. What are you doing recently?
W: Hi, Jack. Well, I was busy dealing with my interview.
M: Right. How did your interview go?
W: Pretty well. I don't know whether I'll get the promotion or not, but I feel good about it.
M: Congratulations in advance. If you get the promotion, what will your new title be?
W: (6If I get the promotion, I will be a senior engineer instead of an assistant engineer.
M: What kinds of questions did she ask you?
W: She asked me about my ability to work in a team and what I thought a good boss should be.
M: The second one sounds rather difficult to answer. What did you tell her?
W: (7)I told her that I’m an excellent team player and that a good boss should treat male and female employees equally.
M: Those are good answers. How did she react?
W: She told me that even when I become a senior engineer, I’ll have to work with the assistant engineers as a team.
M: She's a tactical leader, I think. What do you think about her as a boss?
W: (8)She is considerate and generous. But sometimes she's also aggressive and ambitious, too. It's rare for one to be such a perfect combination. And I think she's a born boss,and a successful example for me to follow.
M: You're lucky. Not everyone has such a great boss!
W: That's true. What about you? How is everything going?
M: I don't know what I’m going to do! It's going to be impossible to make ends meet if I lose my job!
W: Don't worry. I don't think you're going to lose your job over just one mistake.
M: It was a rather big mistake.(9)When you work as an investment adviser, one small mistake can cost the company millions. It is reasonable for a boss to dismiss such an employee.
W: If it's that, let's think realistically about what might happen. How much money do you have in your savings?
M: I have enough to live off for about 3 months.
W: (10)Well, that's good. If you lose your job, you can just move in with my brother until you find another job. That will save you plenty of money. I think he'll be glad to help you.
M: That's very generous of you. I guess that would work.
W: If you lose your job, you just have to go for a few months without buying all the junk you usually buy. If you live frugally, you'll save plenty of money.
M: I guess working with so much money has made me rather greedy. Maybe losing my job would be a good thing!
W: Well, maybe it will be a blessing in disguise.
M: I hope so.
6.What is the current title of Tracy?
7.What's Tracy's opinion about being a good boss?
8.Which of the following is NOT the quality of her boss mentioned by Tracy?
9.Which job does Jack take?
10.What will happen if Jack loses his job?
【精解精析】
6.D【解析】题目问:Tracy目前的职位是什么?由句(6)可知,Tracy说,如果我升职的话,就会成为中级工程师而不是助理工程师。由此可推出,Tracy目前的职位是助理工程师,故选D。
7.C【解析】题目问:对于好老板的理解,Tracy的观点是什么?由句(7)可知,Tracy认为好老板应该平等地对待男职工和女职工。故选C。
8.D【解析】题目问:下列哪一项不是Tracy提到的关于她老板的品质?由句(8)可知,Tracy说她的老板温和、慷慨、有进取心、有雄心。A、B、C都提到了,D项sensitivity未提到,故选D。
9.A【解析】题目问:Jack是做什么工作的?由句(9)可知,Jack是投资顾问,故选A。
10.B【解析】题目问:Jack如果失业了会发生什么?由句(10)可知,Tracy说Jack失业了可以搬去和她弟弟一起住直到找到另一份工作。故选B。
【闪光词汇】

promotion n.提升
excellent adj.优秀的
considerate adj.温和的
aggressive adj.有进取心的
ambitious adj.有雄心的
investment n.投资

PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】C
【译文】用塑料纤维制成的衣服与用棉花、羊毛或丝绸等天然纤维制成的衣服相比具有某些优势。
【解析】本题考查代词的用法。这句话的主干是一个比较结构,前后两个被比较的成分是平行的。clothing是衣服、被褥的总称,为不可数名词,不能用one或the one来指代;what相当于“先行词+ that”,后面要接从句。因此只能用that指代clothing,故选C。
12.【答案】D
【译文】这位帅气的日本小男孩是约翰的侄子。
【解析】本题考查限定词的顺序。多个形容词修饰同一名词时,形容词的顺序是固定的,其顺序为:①冠词、指示代词、不定代词、物主代词;②序数词、基数词;③一般性描绘类形容词;④大小、长短、形状、年龄、新旧;⑥颜色;⑦国籍、出处;⑧材料;⑨用途、类别;⑩被修饰的名词或动名词。以上规则可以用“限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍出(处)材料,作用类别往后靠”这个规则来记,即与被修饰名词关系越密切的形容词离名词越近,关系越疏远的离名词越远。故选D。
13.【答案】C
【译文】这是自战争以来出版的最有趣的小说之一。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致和时态。定语从句的先行词是复数形式novels,因此助动词也要相应地用复数形式have; 由于从句是现在完成时,因此时间状语要用since the war,故选C。
14.【答案】C
【译文】他们在森林里迷路了。更糟糕的是,夜晚来临了。
【解析】本题考查名词性从句。and后的分句缺主语,所以空格处所填词引导的是一个主语从句,连接词只能从that、 what和which中选择;同时,主语从句中也缺主语,而that在引导名词性从句时是不充当任何成分,故排除,which引导主语从句时,意思为“哪一个”,不符合此处语境,故也排除;只有what合乎句意,且符合语法规则,故选C。
15.【答案】B
【译文】日常的商业活动,无论是货物的销售还是运输,都进展得相当顺利。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气和倒装句。空格后的句子应为一个whether...or...引导的让步状语从句,使用虚拟语气“whether it (should) be selling goods or shipping them”,其中should可以省略;如果省略连接词whether,那么句子需要倒装,将be提到主语之前,故选B。
16.【答案】C
【译文】安全分析应该能够辨认出该目标存在潜在的危险。可惜的是它从来没有做到这一点。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。unfortunately提示前后两个分句的意思相反,后面分句的时态为一般过去时,因此前面的句子是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故选C。
17.【答案】D
【译文】簿记员的诚实受到一些质疑,公司要求他辞职。
【解析】本题考查独立主格。there be句型的主语是some questions,与主句主语the company不一致,因此要使用独立主格形式,故选D。
18.【答案】B
【译文】很多房屋在地震中被毁。
【解析】本题考查时态及主谓一致。这句话强调过去发生的动作,因此要用一般过去时,排除C和D。a good many意为“大量的”,修饰可数名词,houses为复数,故选B。
19.【答案】A
【译文】每个男孩和女孩必须将自己的头发梳整齐。
【解析】本题考查人称代词。当提到两个单数名词,一个是阳性,另一个是阴性,由and连接,并由each或every修饰时,其物主代词应为his。由此可知A为正确答案,故选A。
20.【答案】B
【译文】人口规模的增长是当今社会关心的一个主要问题。
【解析】本题考查冠词的用法。a major concern意为“一个主要关心的问题”;society前一般不加冠词,但可以加物主代词,如:our society,故选B。
21.【答案】C
【译文】要不是公众的及时投资,他的公司不会像现在这么繁荣。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。只有选项C符合条件,为省略if的虚拟条件状语从句的倒装结构。如果if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中有were, had或should,可省略if,将were, had或should提到从句主语之前,形成部分倒装结构。选项A没有倒装;选项B和D中not的位置不对,故选C。
22.【答案】B
【译文】对于一个不得不躺在床上并且无事可做的病人而言,两年的确是一段很长的时间。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致。只有选项B符合条件,一段时间作主语时,谓语动词应用单数形式。由数词+表示重量、里程、时间、金钱等名词所构成的复数名词作主语时,应将其视为整体,其后的谓语动词用单数形式。选项A和C用的是复数形式,因此排除;选项D虽然是单数形式,但却是一般过去时,根据原句中定语从句的谓语动词has to的时态可知,主句也应用现在时,所以排除,故选B。
23.【答案】A
【译文】下列哪个句子表示了将来的行为?
【解析】本题考查将来时。选项A意为“他即将和一位百万富翁的女儿结婚。”选项中is marrying表示将来的行为;选项B意为“我的父亲总是批评我。”选项中is always criticizing表示经常性的行为,并带有不满的感情色彩;选项C意为“玛丽正在牛津大学攻读经济学专业。”选项中is majoring表示目前这个阶段正在进行的动作;选项D意为“这些车保养得越来越差。”选项中are getting表示变化的过程,意为“逐渐;越来越……”,故选A。
24.【答案】C
【译文】下列哪个祈使句表示“警告”?
【解析】本题考查祈使句。Be quiet, please意为“请安静。”表示请求;No parking意为“禁止停车。”表示禁止;Watch your steps意为“走路小心。”表示警告;Be kind to your brother意为“对兄弟要和善。”表示劝告,故选C。
25.【答案】B
【译文】下列哪个反意疑问句不正确?
【解析】本题考查反意疑问句。若陈述部分含有hardly, never, few, nothing, little, nobody, seldom等否定词或半否定词,其反意疑问句部分要用肯定式,选项B含有nothing,但反意疑问句部分使用了否定式,表述不正确,因此选B。若陈述部分含有带否定前缀的词,其反意疑问句部分仍用否定式,故选项A表述正确;若陈述部分的主语是指示代词this, that, these, those,其反意疑问句部分用it, they等代词,故选项C表述正确;若陈述部分为祈使句,其反意疑问句部分用will you,故选项D正确。
26.【答案】A
【译文】人的社会地位常常通过他们拥有多少财富来衡量。
【解析】本题考查动词词义辨析。measure意为“估量,衡量”;examine意为“检查,调查”;test意为“试验,测试”; question意为“询问,审问”,故选A。
27.【答案】C
【译文】灵活应用标准似乎比生搬硬套更明智。
【解析】本题考查形容词词义辨析。insensitive意为“对……没有感觉的”;allergic意为“过敏的”;sensible意为“明智的,合情理的”;infected意为“(伤口 )被感染的”,结合句意,故选C。
28.【答案】A
【译文】如果饮食中的维生素和矿物质供给不够,就会导致体内发生化学变化。
【解析】本题考查形容词词义辨析。inadequate意为“不充分的,不适当的”;incapable意为“无能力的,不能的”; incompatible意为“性质相反的,不相容的”;invalid意为“(法律上)无效的;有病的,病弱的”,故选A。
29.【答案】B
【译文】访问签证期满后,他在美国非法生活了5年。
【解析】本题考查动词词义辨析。abolish意为“废止,废除”;expire意为“期满,终止”;amend意为“修正”;constrain意为“强迫,抑制”,根据句意,故选B。
30.【答案】D
【译文】我非常感激你对我儿子的友好。
【解析】本题考查副词词义辨析。excessively意为“过多地,过分地” ;much常以too much, so much, very much的形式出现;certainly意为“无疑地;一定”;exceedingly意为“非常,极其”。根据句意可知,此处需要填入表示“非常”的程度副词,故选D。
PART IV CLOZE
【参考译文】
    流感(流行性感冒的简称)是一种具有高度传染性的疾病。流感的病因是一种极小的有机体—病毒。根据引发疾病的病毒的类型,几种流行性感冒被人们辨认了出来。
    当人们患流感时,他们通常会抱怨有头痛或咽喉痛的症状。人们通常会发高烧,体温会在正常的37℃和39.5℃之间徘徊。有时人们还会出现干咳和关节痛的症状。
    如今许多医生会给病人开治疗流感的药物。科学家们也研制出了预防流感的疫苗。如果病人能得到适当的治疗,并充分卧床休息,病毒通常在一周到十天内就会被杀死。
    流行性感冒是怎样如此迅速地扩散的?当被感染的人呼气、打喷嚏或者咳嗽时,从他的嘴中或者鼻子中会排出微量的湿气。这些湿气会在空气中存留一段时间。如果一个人在拥挤或通风不畅的地方打喷嚏,例如电梯里,病毒就很容易从被感染的患者传到健康人身上。这被认为是“飞沫”传播。健康的人会吸入感染者所呼出的病毒而染病。
    流感经常会引起呼气道问题以及肺部的感染。对于年长和虚弱的人来说,这些感染会导致更严重的后果。如果病毒没有得到适当的治疗就会使人的身体变弱,可能会导致病人患上更严重的疾病,比如肺炎和支气管炎。
【精解精析】
31.B【解析】本题考查形容词。空格前为副词highly,空格后为名词disease,由此可知空格处应填入能修饰“疾病”的形容词,可将答案锁定在B项infectious和C项fatal。由常识可知,流感具有高度传染性,但一般的流感并不足以致命,可知B项infectious“传染性的”更适合,故选B。
32.H【解析】本题考查动词。空格前为系动词are,因此空格处应填形容词、动词过去分词和现在分词或名词复数。结合句意“根据引发疾病的病毒的类型,几种流行性感冒被”和选项H项recognized“识别,辨认”最适合,而I项realized“实现;意识到”作为干扰项,不符合题意,可排除。故选H。
33.D【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在句缺少谓语动词,再结合上下文可知,该句应该采用一般现在时,且空格前的主语为they,故空格处应填动词原形,且能与空格后的介词of构成搭配。结合句意“当人们患流感时,他们通常头痛或咽喉痛”和选项,可知D项complain“诉说(疼痛);抱怨”最适合。故选D。
34.L【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在主句缺少谓语动词,该句也采用一般现在时,再由空格前的主语doctors可知,空格处应填及物动词原形。结合句意和选项,可知L项prescribe“开(药、处方)”最适合。故选L。
35.A【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前是形容词proper,之后是并列连词and,因此空格处应填和and后的rest并列的名词。结合句意“如果病人得到适当,并充分卧床休息,病毒在一周到十天内通常就会被杀死”和选项,可知A项treatment“治疗”最适合。故选A。
 36.O【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在句为特殊疑问句,空格后为副词quickly,因此空格处应填不及物动词原形。结合句意和选项,O项spread“传播,蔓延”最符合文意;E项为干扰项,diffuse“传播,扩散”一般用于气味、光和热的传播,不符合句意,故排除。故选O。
37.K【解析】本题考查形容词。该空格前为副词poorly,因此空格处应填形容词或动词过去分词作定语修饰place。结合句意和选项,K项ventilated“通风的”最适合;G项capacious意为“宽敞的”,与poorly无法构成搭配,可排除。故选K。
38.M【解析】本题考查名词。上句提到“如果一个人在拥挤或通风不良的地方打喷嚏,例如电梯里,病毒就很容易从被感染的患者传到健康人身上”,根据常识可知,这种通过唾液传播的疾病被称为“飞沫传染”,因此选M 项,droplet infection是医学上内科专用术语,意为“飞沫传染”。故选M。
39.F【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在句缺少谓语动词,该句采用一般现在时,而空格后为serious results,因此空格处应填及物动词原形。结合句意和选项,F项yield最适合,为及物动词,表示“产生(结果)”,故选F。
40.J【解析】本题考查副词。该空格后为动词过去分词treated,因此空格处应填可以修饰treated的副词。结合句意和选项,J项properly“适当地”最适合,强调事物的正确性;而N项duly“适当地;按时地”作为干扰项,一般强调事物的正当性和及时性,用在此处不合适,故排除。故选J。
PARTV READING COMPREHENSION
PASSAGE ONE
【参考译文】
  国际货币基金组织是地球上最强大的金融机构,能够命令各国政府听从它的经济政策。利雅卡特·艾哈迈德是描写经济大危机中的核心银行业务—《金融大亨》的最卖座的作家。将这两者联系在一起简直就是天作之合。
  令人悲哀的是,结果却是一本相当乏味充满照片的书。这些照片就像国际货币基金组织的公职人员的照片和他们的会议一样令人激动。就像艾哈迈德先生所承认的那样,就在他“不太可能制造麻烦”之后国家货币基金组织就允许他对其进行报道。在跟随一名基金工作人员执行在爱尔兰的一项任务时,他就被爱尔兰政府工作人员禁止参与那次的私人会谈。结果就是,艾哈迈德先生并没有挖到什么料。他显然十分崇拜基金组织所做的工作,并深信他们的工作人员所做出的贡献。
  但是他显然对于经济历史有十分详细的了解。对于那些想要对国际货币基金组织的活动进行大致了解的人,这就是一本入门书了。基金组织是于战后在美国布雷顿建立的几个机构的一部分,并且它至今还保留着一些殖民地时期的特征,比如说像欧洲人收费的传统。但是那些认为国际货币基金组织只是西方资本主义的工具的人在认识到于爱尔兰执行的两项任务的领导人为印度人以及在莫桑比克的任务的领导来自巴西时可能会大吃一惊。基金组织有能力招募来自世界各地的最优秀、最聪明的人:工资不错,而且对于任何人的履历来说在国际货币基金组织工作会增彩不少。
  近年来基金组织受到不少来自人们的批评,主要表现在它对发生于20世纪90年代后期的亚洲的金融危机的处理以及对当前时期面临的节俭问题的处理。就像艾哈迈德先生解释的那样,基金组织的工作人员将他们在世界某些地区的“不受欢迎”视为“光荣勋章”,将他们自己视为医生,为病人开出“严厉但却必要”的药方。一个更具批判思维的作者可能会对这个问题做出更严密的检查。面对经济这样一个不那么精确的科学时那些非选拔出的官员是否应该掌握强权?但话说回来一个更严厉的作者应该不会被允许来写这本书。
【精解精析】
41.D【定位】第二段。
【解析】推理题。在第二段中,作者首先就指出这本书是空洞乏味的,然后在该段最后一句中,作者指出“Mr. Ahamed has no real dirt to dish”,意思是作者并没有真正地爆料,反映IMF的内幕,因此D符合文意。作者在第二段首句就指出书中有大量反映IMF官员和会议的照片,因此A的说法不符合文意;B是对原文第二段第二句中“unlikely to be a troublemaker”的曲解,Mr. Ahamed本意就未想要制造事端,而非未能做到这点,因此排除B;而第二段第二句指出Mr. Ahamed是获得了跟随IMF职员的权利,但原文是“follow around”而不是follow all around,因此也就谈不上未能做到,故C也排除。故选D。
42.A【定位】第一、二、三段。
【解析】细节题。第一段最后一句中指出,书的对象和作者本是“a match made in heaven”,但第二段中指出结果却是这本书很乏味,可见未能达到所预期的效果,但作者在第三段第一句又指出作者还是介绍了一些非常有用的知识,故A是对原文的正确概括。第二段首句指出,书中有大量的照片,因此该书乏味的原因并不是没有照片,故B的说法与原文相悖,排除;原文第二段最后一句中提到,显然他很钦佩国际货币基金组织所做的工作,但此处的“he”是指Mr. Ahamed,并不是作者的看法,作者在第四段中也指出可以有更为批判的看法,因此C是对第二段最后一句的错误理解,故排除。第三段第一句指出,作者介绍了经济历史和IMF活动的一些基本概念,而不是介绍IMF以往的工作,D的说法与原文不符,故 D排除。故选A。
43.C【定位】But those who believe the IMF to be solely a tool of Western capitalism might be surprised to learn that two of the leaders of the Irish mission were Indians, and that the head of the mission in Mozambique was from Brazil.(第三段第三句)
【解析】推理题。作者对IMF的看法主要集中在第三段。该段第三句中,作者指出那些一向认为IMF只是西方资本主义工具的人可能会感到惊讶,因为这个机构有大量来自第三世界的经济学家参与其中。并且作者对Mr. Ahamed对IMF的钦敬态度也未持反对看法,可见IMF在他看来还是公正的,但他在第三段第二句也指出这个机构还保留着一些殖民时代的遗风,因此C的概括全面恰当,故为答案。由上述分析可知,A夸大了 IMF的殖民时代遗风,与原文不符,故排除;同样,由第三段第三句可知,作者并不认为IMF完全是西方资本主义的工具,故排除B;作者在第三段最后一句说明 IMF集中了许多优秀的经济学家,可以说是人才聚集,但是并未说明是财富的聚集,D是对该句的曲解,故也排除。故选C。
【闪光词汇】

bland adj.乏味的
bureaucrat n.官僚
permission n.允许
dedication n.贡献
economic adj.经济的
institutional adj.制度性
capitalism n.资本主义
austerity n.简朴,节俭
forensic adj.适合辩论的

【难句解析】
① Sadly, the result is a rather bland book filled with photographs that are about as exciting as one would expect pictures of IMF officials and meetings to be.
【解析】本句为复合句。主句为“the result is a rather bland book filled with photographs”,其后为 that 引导的定语从句,先行词photographs在定语从句中作主语,而该从句中又包含了比较从句as...as结构。
② What he does possess is a thorough knowledge of economic history, and those who want a general idea of the IMF's activities will find this book a useful primer.
【解析】本句为并列句,由逗号后的连词and连接。第一个并列分句中包含主语从句“what he does possess”,该从句使用了强调结构,第二个并列分句中则包含定语从句“who want a general idea of the IMF's activities”。
PASSAGE TWO
【参考译文】
    大多数人都知道信用值与人们生活的许多方面都有牵扯,从贷款的利率到你租房的能力、买车或买房甚至是找工作的问题。公司逐渐开始使用信用值作为判断员工信用和可信度的客观标准。但是关于信用值以及信用值意味着什么,还有许多疑惑等待解答。有些人将信用值和信用报告弄混了。他们是两种不同的事物。信用报告包含信用局所记录的一个人的信用档案中所有的信息。信用值是用信用报告中的数据通过复杂的数学方式计算出的。信用值是一个单个的数字,范围在300分(信用差)至850分(完美)之间。
    人们还错误的认为查看信用值会使其分数降低——这只是部分正确。当申请贷款或通过新渠道利用信用信息时,贷方会查看你的信用值以检查你是否是一个可以信赖的候选人。这会使你得到惩罚或者对信用值产生影响。查看信用值是不会被贷方看到的,也不会降低你的信用值。因为,信用值可能随时发生改变,然后对你的生活的许多方面产生影响。不付账或者延迟付款会使你的信用值降低,并且会使信用公司或者广告商对你不那么感兴趣。通过不断的管理信用值,你可以从贷方那儿夺回控制权。你可以知道自己可以申请的贷款值是多少,什么时候提钱以及什么时候再贷款。
    很多公司已经想出办法对需要了解自己信用值的消费者收费了。但是这项服务是不合理的,因为每个人权利免费查看自己的信用值。你会发现这就是Credit Karma公司所做的,提供免费服务,致力于使消费者们能够更加活跃地管理自己的信用以及金融健康。通过让你即时查询你的信用评分,以及为信用卡、抵押贷款、汽车贷款等找到最佳储蓄选项,来帮助你追踪自己的债务和财务状况。
    如果您想要快速、简单地了解自己的信用值、信用分布以及贷款情况,您可以经常登录自己的账户。他们同样相信通过允许您自己控制谁可以接受您的金融数据的方式保护您的隐私。没有您的同意Credit Karma公司是绝对不会将您的信息与别人共享的。他们的免费互动工具和激励器能帮助您学习参与到自己的信用值的变动中。您也可以将自己的信用报告同他人做比较以便查看信用报告中的不同因素是如何影响您的信用值的。
    使Credit Karma公司与众不同的另一个因素(除了他们是百分百免费这一点)是您能够得到来自评估您的信用值的公司的独有的出价。他们的系统能够找到和展示基于你的信用档案的来自第三方的个性化的出价。除非您向出价者做出回应,否则Credit Karma公司是不会公开用户信息的。有出价时,也会有其他的用户出于需要出现的。
【精解精析】
44.C【定位】A credit report contains all the information in a person's credit file maintained by a Credit Bureau.(第一段第五句)
【解析】细节题。第一段第五句指出,信用报告中包含了信用机构中个人信用文件中的所有信息,也就是说,它覆盖了个人的信用信息,故C为答案。第一段第五句点明,信用报告中包含关于某人的所有信用信息,这其中很可能包含数字, 故排除A;第一段第二句中说信用评分是体现某人信用度的客观手段,但并不表示信用报告就不如信用评分客观,故排除B;第一段第六句指出,在信用机构所保有的信用报告的基础上,通过复杂的运算,得出信用评分,但没有明确说明是Credit Bureau来进行计算,故排除D。故选C。
45.B【定位】Their free interactive tools and simulators help you learn how to anticipate changes in your credit score.(第四段第四句)
【解析】细节题。第四段第四句说“Their free interactive tools and simulators help you learn how to anticipate changes in your credit score”,由此可知,人们可以利用该网站所提供的工具预测自己的信用记录可能会发生的变化, 故B为答案。第四段第三句指出,Credit Karma不会未经用户明确许可就分享用户信息,但这并不能保证其他机构或个人通过其他途径申请并获取查询某人的信用报告,因此人们并不能通过Credit Karma网站控制别人查看自己的信用报告,故排除A;第四段第五句指出,人们可以通过对比信用报告来了解信用报告中的某些项目对信用评分的影响,并没有说人们可以借此了解得出信用评分的复杂数学运算过程,故排除C;文章没有提到该网站向用户提供专家咨询,故排除D。故选B。
46.B【定位】A credit report contains all the information in a person's credit file maintained by a Credit Bureau. The data in a credit report is interpreted through a complex mathematical process to determine a credit score,which is a single number that commonly ranges from 300 (terrible) to 850 (perfect).(第一段第五、六句)
【解析】推理题。文章第一段第五、六句指出,credit report中包含着人们所有的信用记录,信用评分是依据信用记录计算得出的,第四段最后一句也说,人们可以大致判断信用记录中的各项对总体信用评分的影响,由此可知,只要是人们做出了与信用相关的决定,都会记入信用记录,从而影响信用评分,故B为答案。文章第三段中仅说Credit Karma是让用户能够管理自己信用及财务事宜的网站,并未说该网站是对人们信用情况进行记录的机构,故排除A;第五段第一句说通过使用Credit Karma 这一网站,人们有机会获得那些认可其信用记录的公司所提供的特殊接触机会,但并没有说金融机构或公司对该网站的用户有特别优惠,故排除C;文章没有提到个人查询信用评分的难度与其信用评分高低有关联,故排除D。故选B。
【闪光词汇】

credibility  n.可信性,可靠性
attribute  n.属性,特性
viable adj.切实可行的,可实施的
simulator  n.模拟器
delinquent adj.拖欠债务的,行为不良的  
profile n.简介,概略
empower v.授权,准许

【难句解析】
① The data in a credit report is interpreted through a complex mathematical process to determine a credit score, which is a single number that commonly ranges from 300 (terrible) to 850 (perfect).
【解析】本句为主从复合句。主干结构为“the data is interpreted...”,介词短语in a credit report为定语, 修饰主语,through引导的介词短语为状语,表示分析的途径,主句后的which...为非限制性定语从句,修饰 credit score。
② By consistently managing your score, you take the control back from creditors by knowing exactly how much you qualify for when it's time to take out a loan or open a new line of credit.
【解析】本句为主从复合句。主干结构为“you take the control back from...”,句首by引导的短语作状语,句子中的by knowing...也是状语,表示方式;状语中,how much引导的从句是knowing的宾语; when引导的是时间状语从句。
PASSAGE THREE
【参考译文】
    在人类的故事中绝少出现这样的人,生就铁血柔情,坚如磐石又柔似飘雾,能从心智上明白可怕的风雨和难以言表的完美平静所构成的矛盾。几个世纪以来,不可比拟的亚伯拉罕·林肯的报告进入了人们的视野。林肯生于150年前的今天,如果说他不是这种性格的完美典范那至少是很接近的了。
    在1865年4月丁香花开的日子,林肯逝去了,装着他尸身的盒子被带往了1 000英里外的西北地区。美国人民从未像那样伤心痛哭过。在他任总统的4年期间,他有时,尤其是在前3个月里,几乎是将自己作为一个独裁者那样行使权利。他命令那时最强大的军队在战争中集结起来。在美国历史上他首次强制启用征兵制度。
    出于紧急需要,他废除了人身保护法。在政治和精神上,在那场被时间验证为真正战争的内战中,他指导释放了那些野蛮的、大量的、骚动的武力,使他们成为了战友。他据理力争并请求奴隶得到有偿解放。奴隶在那时是一种财产。和牛马一样登记在纳税册上,在纳税审查人的本子上每个奴隶的价值就写在那奴隶的名字旁边。由于奴隶有偿解放的失败,他选择了那仅剩的一条路。作为首席执行官,他拥有发动战争的权利。他发布了使用战争手段解放奴隶的文件。人们,许多其他国家的人们将他视为是自己人。他是属于他们的。他代表的是正派、诚实的行为、朴素的言谈和有趣的故事。看看他从哪里来,你难道不认为他是一个苦苦挣扎的人吗?难道在他的一生中,他不就是一个在苦苦挣扎的斗争者吗?不论在身边还是在远方,你都会听到这样的事。世上有数百万的人将林肯视为私有物。他拥有这些人希望传播到世界各地的信仰,那就是——民主。我们找不到言词来说明民主到底是什么,但林肯拥有它。民主存在于他的骨血中。在他的演讲和写作中。在人民的政府和共和制度的政府中,人们这样说。用这样或那样的方式向他们的领导者倾诉自己的意愿。他有这样的思想。他是这思想的代表。它就存在于他的人格中,是一个神秘的存在,不可言传。
    如今,当我们慨叹对林肯最确信和最永恒的记忆也许今天已不复存在,明天甚至未来的很长一段时间亦不会再有时,事实上它却一直存在于和平爱好者的心中。这个国家的男人和女人们处于危机之时,总是有自由爱好者挺身而出,他们懂得哪里有自由,哪里就有那些为自由而战、而艰难前行乃至牺牲的人。
【精解精析】
47.A【定位】He had the idea. He embodied it. It's there in the lights and shadows of his personality a mystery that can be lived but never fully spoken in words.(第三段最后三句)
【解析】推理题。第三段最后提到,林肯拥有民主精神, 他的血液和骨子里都体现着民主,在他所说的话和所写的文字中都有民主的踪影,他代表着民主。由此推断,林肯是民主的代表和象征,故选A。
48.B【定位】Men and women in this country have always had them in crises—men and women who understand that wherever there is freedom, there have been those who have fought, toiled and sacrificed for it.(最后一段最后一句)
【解析】推理题。最后一段提到,热爱自由的人在心里一直怀念着林肯,美国人总是在处于紧要关头时得到热爱自由的人的帮助,他们知道,只 要有自由存在,就有人为自由而斗争、吃苦和牺牲。由此推断,许多美国人非常渴望自由,故选B。
【闪光词汇】

velvet n.天鹅绒  
conscription n.征兵
habeas corpus人身保护权
allege v.宣称   
casket n.棺材
imperative adj.强制的    
writ n.正式文件
emancipation n.解放

【难句解析】
① Not often in the story of mankind does a man arrive on earth who is both steel and velvet, who is as hard as rock and soft as drifting fog, who knows in his heart and mind the paradox of terrible storm and peace unspeakable and perfect.
【解析】这是个典型的否定倒装句,以否定副词not开头,强调否定程度,以助动词does辅助完成主谓语倒置,句子的主语是a man,谓语是arrive on earth,三个并列的定语从句紧随其后构成排比。
② Today, when we say perhaps that well assured and most enduring memory onto Lincoln is invisibly there today, tomorrow and for a long time yet to come, it is there in the hearts of the lovers of liberty.
【解析】句子的主干是“it is there in the hearts of the lovers of liberty”,when引导一个时间状语从句。句子的主语it其实并非真正的主语,它代替的是前句中的“well assured and most enduring memory onto Lincoln”。
PASSAGE FOUR
【参考译文】
    母亲在新奥尔良时,是我的祖父母在照顾我。他们对待我异常尽职尽责。他们非常爱我。令人伤心的是,他们对我的爱超过了彼此之间的爱,或者对于我的祖母来说,超过了对我母亲的爱。当然了,我很幸运的一直对此一无所知。我只知道自己是被深爱着的。后来,当我对在艰难环境下成长的孩子感兴趣,并且从在耶鲁儿童研究中心工作的希拉里的成果中学习有关儿童发展的知识时,我开始意识到自己从前是多么的幸运。不论他们做过什么,我的祖父母总是使我感到不论如何我是这世上对他们来说最重要的人。假如能有一个这样的人,大多数的孩子都会健康成长。而我有三个。
    我的祖母,伊迪丝·格里沙姆·卡西迪只有五英尺高,180磅重。祖母聪明、热情、进取心强。而且可以看出,祖母年轻时是一个美人。她的笑声很明朗,但同时她也充满了愤怒、失望和困扰。但她只有朦朦胧胧的概念。虽然我能够幸免于难,但她将这些全部以愤怒、激烈的长篇演说的方式对我的祖父和母亲发泄出来,在我出生前后都这样做过。她曾经是个好学生,也很有野心。因此,她在高中以后在芝加哥护理学院学习了护理通信课程。那时我还是个学步的孩童,而我的祖母就在不远处的赫维街上的一处房子中为一个男人做私人护士。我还记得当她工作完成后回家时,我沿街奔跑着找她的情景。
    祖母对我的主要要求就是多吃点、多学点、永远保持干净整洁。我们会在厨房里近窗的一张桌子上吃饭。我的高脚椅就面对着窗子。吃饭时祖母将卡片置于木窗边,这样我可以学着数数。她还每顿饭都将我喂得饱饱的,因为那时人们的传统智慧是一个胖孩子就是一个健康的孩子,只要保证他每天洗澡就行了。每天至少一次,她会为我读《迪克和简》这本书直到我能够自己读这本书。她还会为我读《世界百科全书》的系列书,那时销售人员会挨家挨户售卖这本书,同时这书也是除了圣经外,在工人家庭中的唯一一本书。这些早期的指导也就是为何现在我多读书、热爱卡片游戏、保持体重以及从不忘记洗手刷牙的原因。
【精解精析】
49.D【定位】第一段。
【解析】主旨题。首段谈到外祖父母对“我”的宠爱,甚至超过了对“我”的母亲以及他们彼此之间的爱。本段倒数第四句说我意识到我是多么幸运,因为无论他们有多么糟,外祖父母和母亲总是让我感觉到,在这个世界上我对他们而言是最重要的。多数儿童只要有一个人给他们这种感觉就足以让他们健康成长,而我则拥有三个,故选D。
50.C【定位】These early instructions probably explain why I now read a lot, love card games, battle my weight, and never forget to wash my hands and brush my teeth.(第三段最后一句)
【解析】细节题。第三段谈到祖母对“我”的早期教育,以及它们对我的影响,即这些早期教育也许说明了为什么我现在喜欢读书,喜欢卡片游戏,总是在减肥,从不忘记洗手刷牙。可见作者的生活习惯由此形成,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

conscientious adj.尽责的
blissfully adv.幸福地,充满喜悦地
circumstance n.环境
demon n.恶魔 intense adj.热情的,热切的
obsession n.困扰;痴迷
dimly adv.模糊地,隐约地
tirade n.长篇而激烈的演说
toddler n.初学走路的孩子

【难句解析】
Later, when I became interested in children growing up in hard circumstances and learned something of child development from Hillary's work at the Yale Child Study Center, I came to realize how fortunate I had been.
【解析】本句看似复杂,其实仔细分析句子结构可以发现这是一个由when引导的时间状语从句和主句组成的复合句。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51.Liaquat Ahamed and the International Monetary Fund.
【解析】语义题。第一段只有两句话,其中第一句由分号分开的两个分句明确提示了两个主语“International Monetary Fund (IMF)”和“Liaquat Ahamed”,由此可见本段第二句的“Putting the two together”中的the two指的就是前面两个分句的主语,因此答案为Liaquat Ahamed and the International Monetary Fund。
PASSAGE TWO
52.Providing good saving choices.
【解析】细节题。第三段最后一句说明,Credit Karma可以提供即时的信用评分查询,并且为用户提供最佳的储蓄选择,让人们能够更好地管理自己的债务和财务,因此,提供良好的储蓄选择是该网站的服务内容。因此答案为Providing good saving choices。
PASSAGE THREE
53.Paradox of extremes.
【解析】推理题。文章首段提到,在人类历史上,很少有人生来既刚毅又柔情,既像岩石般坚强,又如飘雾般温柔,他心中清楚可怕的暴风雨和难以言表的完美平静所构成的矛盾,而林肯却完美地展现了这种性格。由此推断,林肯的性格包含了互相矛盾的极端特性。因此答案为Paradox of extremes。
PASSAGE FOUR
54.The Bible and World Book Encyclopedia.
【解析】推理题。第三段第五句提到“……她还给我一卷卷地念《世界图书百科全书》。那时,这类书是推销员挨家挨户地上门销售的。在劳动阶层家庭,除了《圣经》之外,这往往是唯一的书。”由此可以判断,当时劳动阶层家庭往往只有《圣经》和《世界图书百科全书》。因此答案为The Bible and World Book Encyclopedia。
55.His grandfather.
【解析】推理题。本题要求推断文章接下来可能记述什么,需着眼于全文。从第一段看出,这一部分描写的是作者与祖父母的生活经历。那么在刻画了对自己影响深刻的祖母之后,接下来最有可能讲述关于祖父的故事。因此答案为His grandfather。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
本篇要讨论因特网的出现是否利大于弊。在具体行文方面,考生可以在第一段简单阐述背景知识,并概述因特网的三个优点:获取信息的捷径;能够为人们的交流提供便捷;有助于学习。第二段概述反方观点,即因特网的不利之处:网上的信息良莠不齐,难于辨别真伪;个人
信息易于泄露;上网成瘾会导致肥胖和人际关系恶化。第三段总结全文并发表自己的观点。
【高分范文】
    The Internet is so far one of the greatest inventions of human history. At least for one reason, it is basically a globally accessible repository of knowledge, and anyone can get the latest news with a click of the mouse. For another reason,as a major channel for communication, the Internet dissolves traditional barriers to communication, including time, physical distance, and cost. It brings people together by creating a climate of openness and sharing. Last, it also contributes to learning. There are many educational games and websites people can browse around and learn from in a much more effective way.
    Nevertheless, some have suspected that the appearance of the Internet has done more harm than good. To begin with, the online information may not be reliable and accurate. Thus there is a risk for people to be misguided. Furthermore, your personal information online can be used without your consent,which will lead us to serious trouble. Finally, some spend more than the fair amount of time on the Internet, which not only causes obesity but also affects people's social interactions.
    Despite these facts, the Internet has been a major source of information, and we should use it wisely and discreetly. Personally think the benefits outweigh the harm and the Internet will bring more dramatic changes to our lives.
【闪光词汇】

invention n.发明
repository n.存储器
communication n.交流

MODEL TEST TWO答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

Climate Change

    Rising temperatures do not affect all animals in equally harmful ways. / For some animals, warming may be beneficial. / Take the grey bears for example. / Like pretty much all animals,/ they thrive when they have more food./ Warmer temperatures have resulted in them having easier access to food./ Baby bears born during warmer than normal years / were found to grow into larger and healthier adults. / Of course, for every species that may benefit from global warming, / many more may suffer and possibly go extinct.
【闪光词汇】

temperature n.温度
equally adv.平等的
beneficial adj.有益的
extinct adj.灭绝的,绝种的

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

How to Look Confident

    There are lots of ways to improve your self-confidence over the long-term—but sometimes you need an instant boost. You can't walk into an important work meeting whilst frantically re-reading a self-help manual, or making a last-minute phone call to your life-coach. So here are ten secrets to boosting your self-confidence in just a few seconds.
    The one-second tip for when you're feeling nervous and unconfident is simply to smile! You don't just smile because you are happy and confident—you can smile to make yourself feel better. (1)The act of smiling is so strongly associated with positive feelings that it's almost impossible to feel bad while smiling.
    Smiling is much more than just a facial expression.(2)/(3)The simple act of smiling releases feel-good endorphins improves circulation to the face, makes you feel good about yourself in general and can definitely increase your self-confidence. You will also appear more confident to others while you're smiling.
    As well as smiling, meet the eyes of other people in the room.(4)Give them your smile; you'll almost certainly get one back, and being smiled at is a great self-confidence boost.(5)Like smiling, eye contact shows people that you're confident. Staring at your shoes or at the table reinforces your feelings of self-doubt and shyness.(6)This tip is particularly useful for work-related situations—make eye contact with interviewers, or with the audience for your presentation.
    Eye contact helps take the fear away from a speaker by getting the audience closer to him. Stress is mainly a result of being with the unknown and uncontrollable. Eye contact gives the speaker a picture of the reality that is the audience. It also helps in getting the attention of the audience.
    (7)Most of us have a critical inner voice that tells us we're stupid, not good enough, and that we're too fat, thin, loud, quiet...(8)Being able to change that inner voice is the key to feeling self-confident on the inside, which will help you project your confidence to the world. Make your inner voice a supportive friend who not only knows you fully but also recognizes your talents and gifts, and wants you to make the best of yourself.
    (9)An easy tip for both seeming and being more self-confidence is to speak slowly. If you gabble, you'll end up feeling worse as you know you're being unclear to your audience or to the person you're in a conversation with. Speaking slowly gives you the chance to think about what you're going to say next. If you're giving a talk or presentation, pause at the end of phrases and sentences to help your audience take in what you've said.
    A person in authority, with authority, speaks slowly. It shows confidence. (10)A person who feels that he isn't worth listening to will speak quickly, because he doesn't want to keep others waiting on something not worthy of listening to.
【精解精析】
1.positive
【定位】The act of smiling is so strongly associated with positive feelings that it's almost impossible to feel bad while smiling.(第二段第三句)
【解析】本题的出题点在关键信息处。根据题干处的小标题Smile可知,此处要考查的内容与微笑有关, 讲座中提到“The act of smiling is so strongly associated with positive feelings...”,故填入positive。
2.Releases
【定位】The simple act of smiling releases feel-good endorphins improves circulation to the face, makes you feel good about yourself in general and can definitely increase your self-confidence.(第三段第二句)
【解析】本题的出题点在解释说明处。此处考查的内容仍然与微笑有关,讲座中提到“The simple act of smiling releases feel-good endorphins...”,故填入Releases。
3.circulation
【定位】The simple act of smiling releases feel-good endorphins improves circulation to the face, makes you feel good about yourself in general and can definitely increase your self-confidence.(第三段第二句)
【解析】本题的出题点在解释说明处。讲座中提到“...improves circulation to the face”,即改善面部的血液循环,故填入 circulation。
4.boost
【定位】Give them your smile; you'll almost certainly get one back, and being smiled at is a great self-confidence boost.(第四段第二句)
【解析】本题的出题点在关键信息处。根据题干处的小标题Make Eye Contact可知,此处要考查的内容与保持目光接触有关,讲座中提到“being smiled at is a great self-confidence boost”,故填入boost。
5.confidence
【定位】Like smiling, eye contact shows people that you're confident.(第四段第三句) 
【解析】本题的出题点在类比处(Like...)。此处考查的内容仍然与保持目光接触有关,讲座中提到 “Like smiling, eye contact shows people that you're confident”,注意空格前面是形容词性物主代词your,故填入confidence。
6.work-related
【定位】This tip is particularly useful for work-related situations—make eye contact with interviewers, or with the audience for your presentation.(第四段第五句)
【解析】本题的出题点在强调处(particularly)。讲座中提到“This tip is particularly useful for work- related situations”,故填入work-related。
7.critical
【定位】Most of us have a critical inner voice that tells us we’re stupid, not good enough, and that we're too fat, thin, loud, quiet...(第六段第一句)
【解析】本题的出题点在理解归纳处。根据题干处的小标题Change Your Inner Voice可知,此处要考查的内容与改变内心的声音有关,讲座中提到“Most of us have a critical inner voice that tells us we're stupid, not good enough, and that we're too fat, thin, loud, quiet”,可知我们内心的声音通常是很挑剔的,故填入 critical。
8.key
【定位】Being able to change that inner voice is the key to feeling self-confident on the inside, which will help you project your confidence to the world.(第六段第二句)
【解析】本题的出题点在细节理解处。此处要考查的内容仍旧与改变内心的声音有关,讲座中提到“Being able to change that inner voice is the key to feeling self-confident on the inside”,故填入key。
9.Slowly
【定位】An easy tip for both seeming and being more self-confidence is to speak slowly.(第七段第一句)
【解析】本题的出题点在小标题处。根据前几个小标题可知,此处谈论的是增强自信心的方法,讲座中在谈完如何通过改变内心的声音来增强信心后,又提到“An easy tip for both seeming and being more self-confident is to speak slowly”,故此空填Slowly,注意在标题处首字母要大写。故填入Slowly。
10.worth
【定位】A person who feels that he isn't worth listening to will speak quickly, because he doesn't want to keep others waiting on something not worthy of listening to.(第八段第三句)
【解析】本题的出题点在理解归纳处。此处要考查的内容与讲话速度有关,讲座中提到“A person who feels that he isn't worth listening to will speak quickly...”,故填入worth。
【闪光词汇】

boost n.增强,提升
whilst conj.同时
manual n.手册,指南
endorphin n.内啡肽   
supportive adj.给予帮助的
gabble v.急促地说
frantically adv.疯狂地        
reinforce v.加强 pause v.停顿

SECTION B
Conversation One
【听力原文】
M: Caitlin Friedman offers advice on being a smart woman-in-charge in her new book: The Girls Guide to Being a Boss Without Being Unpopular. Good morning, nice to have you here.
W: Right. Those women need my book, terribly.
M: Absolutely. Why is it that when women become the boss or become leaders, they tend to be unpopular?
W: Well, we think there are two reasons. The first is, it's really unfair that in the workplace people expect women to be emotionally there for them. You would never take your personal problems to a male boss, (1-1)but you do take them to a woman boss because women are nurturing, just because that's what women do.
M: You expect them to understand the issues with your kids or whatever.
W: Right, (1-2and the other thing is there haven't been any positive women role models. I mean,there are very few positive women role models out there.
M: And we'll get to some of that in a minute, but why are the roles so different for men and women when they do become the boss?
W:(3-1)Well, I think it really has to do with the lack of role models. I mean, when we were growing up and coming into the professional environment, we had really tough women bosses, but they had learnt from men. (1-3)So we think that women need to be able to manage the way they are comfortable in managing.
M: What's the No. 1 mistake women are making?
W: I think the No. 1 mistake women are making is that they're trying to do something the way that's not comfortable for them. (2-1)You know, you really need to be firm and fair. You need to know what your employees need from you before you just want to set out these blanket things. (2-2)The other thing is that if you are emotional once in a workplace, you are the crier from then on, though you cried only this time in ten years.
M: Is there no place for emotion than in a workplace?
W: Well, we don't think there is. (2-3)I mean we think that you can be yourself, which is kind and supportive, warm and giving, but not crying, screaming, or beating people.
M: That sounds crazy. So let's talk about practical advice: how women can avoid some of these bad behaviors that will keep them from being unpopular. First, the bad boss behavior—insecurities rule.
W: (3-2)I think a lot of women are uncomfortable with leadership positions. I mean, men too, but I think that women in particular and that can bring insecurity.
M: Gender discrimination. Do women tend to favor men in a workplace?
W: (3-3)Yeah. Unfortunately, we think that there is definitely internalized sexism that goes on.
M: Why is that? (3-4)I mean why can't women relate with  their co-workers? Or if they're the boss,why can't they just give them the power they need?
W: (3-5)Well. We are not sure why, but I think it'll change. With books like this, and the fact that more women are in a workplace everyday, it will change, just by sheer numbers.
M: So, some keys to being a better manager, as you say, are to provide clear visions, support your staff, be advisor.
W: Absolutely. (4)We really think it's the women's responsibility when they are in leadership positions to be more advisor than manager.
M: Caitlin Friedman, thanks so much for the great advice.
1.Which of the followings is NOT a reason why women bosses are unpopular?
2.Which of the followings is NOT suggested to women bosses?
3.Which of the following issues about women bosses is NOT answered by the author?
4.Which is the right way to be a good woman boss?
5.Which is the main purpose of the interview?
【精解精析】
1.D【解析】题目问:下面哪一项不是女老板不受欢迎的原因?对话中,女士谈到了女老板或者女领导不受欢迎的原因,由句(1-1)(1-2)(1-3)可知,A、B、C项都是女士所谈到的原因,只有D项的“人们认为只有男性老板可以管理好员工”,并没有在对话中出现,故选D。
2.B【解析】题目问:下面哪一项不是给女老板的建议?对话中男士请女士给出几条实用的建议,由句(2-1)(2-2)(2-3)可知,B项的“变得情绪化和敏感”并不属于女士所给的建议,故选B。
3.C【解析】题目问:下面的有关女老板的几个问题哪一个是作者没有回答的?由句(3-1)(3-2)(3-3)(3-4)(3-5)可知,C项的“将权利分享给同事”并没有在对话中进行深入的分析,故选C。
4.B【解析】题目问:哪一条是成为好的女老板的正确方式?对话中,男士根据女士的发言总结了成为好的女老板的方式,由句(4)可知,B项符合题意,故选B。
5.B【解析】题目问:本次采访的主要目的是什么?本题要结合整段对话来回答,A、B、C、D四个选项所给的内容只有B项最符合整段对话的大意,故选B。
【闪光词汇】

terribly adv.糟糕地     
workplace n.工作间
professional adj.专业的      
practical adj.实用的    
manager n.经理

Conversation Two
【听力原文】
W: Donny Deutsch says the key to success was asking one simple question of himself—“Why not me?” Now the advertising expert offers up his winning formula in his first book, Often Wrong, Never in Doubt, Unleash the Business Rebel Within. Donny, good morning. Nice to see you.
M: Good to see you.
W: Why not me? How did you come up with that?
M: Every time I've met a successful person in business or president of the United States, just somebody who's made it to the very important position, I always notice that beyond the obvious toolbox of being bright and hard-working, they almost all take the naive sense of entitlement of: Why shouldn't I be the president of the United State? Why shouldn't I be the anchor of “Today's Show”? It doesn't mean that you're guaranteed,(6-1)but if you don't believe it, if you don't feel entitled, it isn't going to happen.
W: You write about this a lot in the book, (6-2)It's all about confidence.
M: (7)I think a lot of people are smarter. But I've still yet to meet a genius one. Once people understand that all the people they read about are very talented, bright people, but you know, not as bright as you think sometimes. So once you realize that, it's very empowering. Just like people think what we do for a living is incredibly difficult, yet if they sat in the chair, and did it for a while, they can also do that!
W: By the way, you don't treat women as sex objects because you also say women are superior in business.
M: Well,(8)I think they're superior in business, because I have found throughout my career that males were so much more concerned with whose office is bigger and which pals are winning, whereas women, almost added an exception, want to be paid fairly, get the job done.
W: Have you met these people?
M: Eight of my top ten partners in business are women. It's a reasonable exception.
W: In fact, you're saying your current job is a talk show host,and you hate Larry King, who happen to be one of the nicer guys you choose to be.
M: First at all,I love Larry King. (9-1)My point in the book is that you have to personify, for example, who's the best in what I do.
W: (9-2)That's envy, not hatred.
M: OK, it’s a book. You know, it’s like this a little metaphor. You put someone to be your model, and if that is a competitive spirit, you added the competitive spirit with the other morning shows and, as I say Larry King to me is one of my heroes. (9-3)So wherever you are going in life, shoot somewhere and say “That's what I want”.
W: You say you've thought about the possibility of becoming mayor of New York City. Are you going to make that happen?
M: Now I say that I would love to get into politics, but it doesn't mean it's going to happen but until I say: “Wait a second.Why not me?” (10)Until I said that, it actually cannot happen. It doesn't mean it's going to, but it can't unless you say it.
W: Well. Good to have you here today, Donny.
M: Pleasure.
6.What does Donny Deutsch emphasize as the key to success?
7.What did Donny find through all the famous people he met?
8.What are women more concerned about in Donny’s view compared with men?
9.What do we know about a little hatred?
10.Which of the following statements can best summarize the main idea of Donny’s book?
【精解精析】
6.D【解析】题目问:唐尼所强调的成功的关键是什么?由句(6-1)(6-2)可知,唐尼认为成功的一切“都和自信有关”,故D项“自信的重要性”是正确选项,故选D。
7.B【解析】题目问:通过他所认识的成功人士唐尼发现了什么?由句(7)可知,唐尼认为有很多人都很聪明,但是有时并不像你想象的那样聪明,故B符合文意,故选B。
8.C【解析】题目问:相比于男性,女性对于唐尼的观点比较的感兴趣的是什么?由句(8)可知,唐尼认为男性比较关心谁的办公室比较大以及谁赢了的问题等这样的问题,故A,D项不正确,B项曲解的唐尼的话,只有C项符合题意,故选C。
9.D【解析】题目问:对于少量的恨我们有哪些了解?由句(9-1)(9-2)可知,D项“暗示我们需要变得更加有目的性的一个比喻”,最符合题意,故选D。
10.A【解析】题目问:下面哪一个选项可以最好的概括唐尼的书的大意?由句(10)可知,唐尼最后自己做了总结,A项的“只要你想就有可能成功”,符合文意,故选A。
【闪光词汇】

advertising adj.广告的
president n.总统,主席
incredibly adv.不可思议地
superior adj.高级的
reasonable adj.理智的
competitive adj.竞争的

PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】B
【译文】当我试图搞清楚究竟是什么使得如此多的美国人不能如人们所期望的那么幸福时,我似乎找到了两个原因。
【解析】本题考查名词性从句和强调句。what引导的名词性从句作动词understand的宾语,宾语从句是一个it is...that 的强调句型,that句中的prevents缺少主语,故选B。
12.【答案】A
【译文】我确信他只要用心做,一定能够胜任这份工作。
【解析】本题考查状语从句。根据句意判断,此处是一个条件状语从句,四个选项中只有if only表示“只要”,符合上下文语义,故A为正确答案。in case意为“万一”;until意为“直到”;unless意为“除非”,三者均不符合句意。故选A。
13.【答案】A
【译文】我们告诉过你,他今晚会来,不是吗?
【解析】本题考查反意疑问句。带有宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分要根据主句谓语而定,故选A。
14.【答案】B
【译文】社会保障退休项目由两个信托基金组成,到明年,其中较大的一个将成为空壳基金。
【解析】本题考查定语从句。首先,从句子的结构来看,空格前面的部分是一个完整的句子,而且在空格的前面是一个名词结构two trust finds和逗号,这就说明空格所在的部分是一个非限制性定语从句,因此,我们可以排除选项A、C。同样它也表明这是两者之间的比较,所以要用比较级形式,而非三者或三者以上的最高级形式。故选B。
15.【答案】A
【译文】据说随着更多的森林遭到毁坏,大量优质土壤正在流失。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。此处存在“with+宾语+非谓语动词”结构,forests和破坏(destroy)之间为被动关系, 再根据后面句子中的进行时态可知A项正确。故选A。
16. 【答案】A
【译文】如果你不介意乘坐晚上的火车,你就可以早点到达北京参加会议。
【解析】本题考查状语从句。四个选项均可以引导状语从句,但是此处显然为一个表示条件的状语从句,所以 provided最为合适。unless,though,until均不符合句意。故选A。
17. 【答案】C
【译文】我们不应该认为现代文明是在短时期内创造的。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。空格前为介词as,所以后面要使用动名词;同时,该动名词表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词前,而且动宾之间是被动关系,所以要使用动名词的完成被动式。故选C。
18.【答案】B
【译文】这是她第一次去美国,是吗?
【解析】本题考查反意疑问句。在It's the first time that...这一句型中,反意疑问句部分的主语和谓语要和that引导的从句一致,故选B。
19.【答案】D
【译文】所有的航班都因为暴风雪取消了,所以我们决定搭乘火车。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。具体说来,该题考查分词独立主格,同时由于该独立主格表示的动作发生在主句谓语前,而且动宾之间是被动关系,所以使用分词独立主格的完成被动式。故选D。
20.【答案】B
【译文】这些动物很有可能在突然出现很大的噪音时被吓到。
【解析】考查倒装句和虚拟语气。that引导的同位语从句由条件状语从句和主句构成,其中使用了虚拟语气。虚拟条件句中如果省略if,需要部分倒装,将助动词提到主语前面。故选B。
21.【答案】D
【译文】下列哪个句子含有原因状语从句?
【解析】本题考查句子成分。选项D含有now that引导的从句,意为“既然每个人都到了,我们的会议就开始吧”,这里now that引导的是原因状语从句,因此选项D为答案。选项A中since引导的是时间状语从句,意为“自从她骗我以来,我就不再相信她了”。选项B中as引导的是时间状语从句, 意为“随着太阳升起,雾散了”。选项C中so连接的是并列句,意思为“我的表慢了,所以我把它向前拨了三分钟”。故选D。
22.【答案】B
【译文】尽管有暴风雨,我们依旧按时到达了目的地。
【解析】本题考查让步状语。根据句意可知,本题需要选的是能作让步状语的介词短语。in spite of的意思是 “尽管,不管”,符合句意,所以选项B为答案。but for意为“要不是”,引导条件状语,其主句应用虚拟语气,与原句的语气不符,故排除选项A ; in case of意为“万一”,引导目的状语,不符合句意,故排除选项C; because of意为“由于”,引导原因状语,不符合句意,故排除选项D。故选B。
23.【答案】C
【译文】我想你在新的工作岗位上不太愉快,是吗?
【解析】本题考查反意疑问句。若陈述部分的主句谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect等动词,并且其后接有宾语从句时,该句的反意疑问句部分可以分为两种情况:当主句的主语为第一人称时,其反意疑问句部分应与从句中的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系;当主句的主语为第二、 三人称时,其反意疑问句部分则应与主句的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系。该句的主句是I suppose,其后接有一个省略了 that的宾语从句,所以该句的反意疑问句部分应与that从句中的 you are not保持一致,故选C。
24.【答案】C
【译文】下列哪个单词不是复合词?
【解析】本题考查功能词汇。复合词也称合成词,顾名思义,就是由两个或两个以上的词合在一起构成的词,可以复合出各种词类。复合后的词属于哪种词类取决于复合词的后半部分词性。loudspeaker是 “形容词+名词”,意为“喇叭,扬声器”;thanksgiving是“名词+动词的-ing形式”,意为“感恩,感谢”;necklace是“名词+名词”,意为“项链”。派生词是在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词,imbalance是“否定前缀+名词”,故选C。
25.【答案】D
【译文】下列哪一项的斜体部分表示目的?
【解析】本题考查句意理解。选项D句意为“他存钱是为了给儿子买一份礼物”。to引导的不定式短语作目的状语,因此,选项D为答案。选项A句意为“戒烟是正确的”。to引导的不定式短语是该句真正的主语;选项B句意为“我觉得学历史很有趣”。to引导的不定式短语是该句真正的宾语;选项C句意为“他匆忙赶到学校,结果发现没有人在那儿”。to引导的不定式短语作结果状语。 故选D。
26.【答案】D
【译文】钻石并没有什么内在的价值,它们的价格几乎全都取决于其稀缺性。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。extinct指物种“灭绝的”;permanent意为“永久的”;surplus意为“过剩的”;intrinsic意为 “内在的,本质的”,故选D。
27.【答案】A
【译文】许多人站在百货大楼的门前。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致。many a person意为“许多人”,其作主语时,谓语动词应该用单数形式。故选A。
28.【答案】C
【译文】理查德从来没有想过他居然会喜欢所谓的“自由体”诗歌。
【解析】本题考查词组和固定搭配。take on意为“从事,承担;呈现”;take over意为“接管,接收”;take to意为“开始喜欢”;take after意为“与……相像”,故选C。
29.【答案】C
【译文】两位学者为了给新词典写序,昨晚连续工作了三个小时。
【解析】本题考查词组和固定搭配。at length意为“详细地;最终”;in full意为“全部地”;on end意为“连续地”;in time 意为“及时”,故选C。
30.【答案】B
【译文】你说书在桌子上,但一本也没有。
【解析】本题考查不定代词的用法。no one表示“一个也没有”,只能指人,不能指物,且谓语动词只能用单数形式。 none表示“没有人;一个也没有”,既可以指人,又可以指物,谓语动词要视主语的情况而定,表示全部否定。这句话中的none指代books,故谓语动词要用复数形式were。故选B。
PART IV CLOZE
【参考译文】
    今天的话题是野餐。请一定要记笔记。如果你想抽烟的话,也可以。首先我们通过提及什么是野餐开始,而不是谈论什么不是野餐。野餐不是在田野或树林里铺着精致的桌布,吃着包括凉拌鸡肉、番茄色拉、火腿和温热的白葡萄酒在内的盛宴。这样餐食适合轻便的商业午餐,只适合在餐桌上吃,还不包括鸡蛋。
    野餐也不是三明治。也不是汉堡、烈酒瓶、折叠椅、防风雨的炉子等等。那么,野餐是什么呢?以下元素是不可缺少的。第一:孩子。一个缺少孩子的野餐就像缺少约克郡布丁的烤牛排一样。孩子是野餐的全部乐趣和目的。第二:美好的天气。好天气是至关重要的,因为野餐和雨衣并不搭调。野餐应该在蓝天下吃,并且有黄蜂相伴。第三:好的野餐地点。一定要有潺潺的流水、参天的大树、可供攀登的山丘,最好还能在附近看到一只牛。这赋予了野餐适当的探险感。第四:适当的食物。以下食谱是从生活经验中精选出来的,能成功提供四人份野餐。先拿出四个深底装食物的袋子。在每个袋子中放入这些原料:一只香蕉、一个桔子、小份的处理过的起司、一些少许的各种品种混合的饼干、一把口香糖、一个盐罐、一包薯片、鸡蛋等等。把这些袋子分给你的野餐同伴,然后就可以出发了。你可以什么都不担心了。
【精解精析】
31.A【解析】本题考查动词。该空格前为方式介词by,因此空格处应选动词-ing形式。kick off为俚语,意为“开始”,结合句意和选项可知,A项最适合。干扰项mentioning意为“提到”,含义与原文不符,故排除N。故选A。

32.L【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为不定冠词a(n),之后为介词of,因此空格处应选单数名词。结合句意“野餐不是在田野或树林里铺着精致的桌布,吃着包括凉拌鸡肉、番茄色拉、火腿和温热的白葡萄酒在内的”,可知几个名词选项中,L项feast最适合。故选L。
33.K【解析】本题考查形容词。该空格前为名词storm,因此空格处应选能和storm构成合成词的单词。选项中只有proof 可以和storm构成合成词,意为“防风雨的”,与原文意思相符,故选K。
34.D【解析】本题考查形容词。该处句意为“那么,野餐是什么呢?以下元素是”,根据句子结构可知此处应填入形容词;而下文又详细介绍了四种东西,由上下文语境可知,此处要说明的是野餐的必备条件,分别是小孩、好天气、合适的地点以及合适的食物。因此所选形容词为indispensable,故选D。
35.O【解析】本题考查名词。由空格所在句句意“一个缺少孩子的野餐就像缺少约克郡的烤牛排一样”可知,空格处应选表示食物的名词。结合选项,O项最适合;但有些考生可能会误选E项recipe,但若把该词放在此处,句意则不通顺。约克郡布丁(Yorkshire pudding)是英国人周日晚餐的重要组成部分,多为烤牛肉的配菜,以它独特的牛肉香味闻名世界。“烤牛肉加约克郡布丁”甚至被称为英国的国菜。故选O。
36.M【解析】本题考查形容词。该空格前为系动词is,因此空格处应选形容词、动词过去分词或名词。结合句意和剩余选项,M项最适合,它强调事物的重要性;而D项indispensable作为干扰项,强调必不可少的东西,故不选。故选M。
37.F【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为定冠词the,因此空格处应填入名词。结合句意“野餐应该在蓝天下吃,并且有黄蜂”和剩余选项,F项最适合。emergence意为“出现,浮现”,与原文不符,故排除干扰项J。故选F。
38.E【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为形容词following,之后为系动词is,因此空格处应选单数名词。结合选项和句意“以下 是从生活经验中精选出来的,能成功提供四人份野餐”,以及下文提到的具体的食物,E项最适合;而cookery表示“烹调术”,是干扰项,不符合句意。故选E。
39.H【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为代词these,因此空格处应选复数名词。结合句意“在每个袋子中放人这些:一个香蕉、一个橙子……”和选项,H项最适合。materials意为“材料,物资”,一般不指具体的食材,故排除G。故选H。
40.C【解析】本题考查动词。该空格前为不定式的标志词to,因此空格处应选动词原形。结合前文列举的各种食物及句意和选项,不难发现只有C项最适合。故选C。
PART V READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE     
【参考译文】
  我的男友对我说,“我发现你那么成功,很有吸引力”,他斜靠着向我索吻。
  当然了,这话听起来像电影台词。但这话仍然是女性主义的。这句话仍然使他看起来比那个说“哇,你真的太有野心了”(好像他很吃惊的样子)的男人更吸引人。或者是那个当我努力想要升职的时候问“你为什么工作这么努力”和“你为什么想去工作”的男人。
  我和这些男人都合不来,但和他们约会过以后我明显更想要一个可爱、聪明、风趣,当然还有男女平等思想的另一半约会了。所以走上去吧,去警告苏姗·巴顿、洛里·戈特利布和其他想要结婚的人们:一个30岁左右的单身女性告诉其他的单身女性们,如果她们曾经希望得到全部,她们就应该敢于想要全部。
  但是,如果不是在堕胎权利集会上,身穿印有“这个就是男女平等主义者的样子”字样的T恤,该怎么辨别这位男性是不是男女平等主义者呢?
  应该不难。毕竟,就像Aziz Ansari 在大卫·莱特曼的会展上说的那样,现在每个人都是女性主义者。除非你觉得碧昂斯不应该有投票权,应该比Jay-Z少挣23%的钱,应该在家做饭而不是演出。谁会那样认为呢?
  当被问及是否支持男女平等时很少会有人骄傲地说不。相反,人们会热情的回答“是”,不是一个不那么热情的“也许吧”,也不是你能说说你说的“男女平等”是什么意思吗?就像一个32岁的人上个月在华盛顿邮报上说的那样,“我很尊重这项运动,但是我不确定自己是不是一个女性主义者,但是我想我不会避免面对这个词的。”
  换句话说:我们必须要贴标签吗?标签并不代表所有,实践远比嘴上说说更重要。这是一个好的开始。
【精解精析】
41.B【定位】第一段、第二段。
【解析】语义题。结合第一段中提到的“我发现你那么成功,很有吸引力。”和第二段中提到的“你为什么做这么多工作? ”和“你为什么还想做更多的工作?”可知这些都是作者工作中表现出色时男友的反应,而当作者希望获得更多工作时,说明她希望获得提升,angle for的本意为“使用暗示的手段获取”,故B为答案。A “感到遗憾”,C “庆祝”和D“补偿”与上下文意思不符,均排除。故选B。
42.A【定位】It didn't work out with any of those men, but going out with them made it all the more obvious to me what I want a partner to be: cute, smart, funny and yes, feminist.(第三段第一句)
【解析】推理题。第三段第一句就提到作者本人与那些男性没有什么结果,这里的those men指的是第二段中那些不赞同男女平等的男性,因此,A为答案。虽然文章多次出现feminist 一词,但这是该文作者的择偶标准,而不是说她本人热衷于女权运动,故排除B;第三段中提到了“get-married-already crowd”,是说问一下Susan Patton, Lori Gottlieb以及其他那些已婚女性,就会发现选择支持女权主义的男性是明智之举,但并没有说已婚女性更倾向于成为女权运动者,故排除C;第三段最后一句中说那些单身女性应该有勇气去争取自己想要的男性,并不是说只要敢于希望,就一定能得到,故排除D。故选A。
43.B【定位】第五段。
【解析】细节题。第五段第三句提到了选举权、收入和外出工作,结合第五段第二句中的“everyone's a feminist now”和第四句的反问句“And who would think that?”可知,人们已经对这些问题不再有任何疑问,说明整体而言,现在男女是平等的,故B为答案。虽然文章第五段中提到了没有人认为碧昂丝应该比Jay-Z少挣钱,但不能仅由此推断出女性与男性能够获得同等报酬,而且,文章的主题是女性希望自己的伴侣能够做到男女平等,不是围绕报酬问题展开,故排除A;文章中提到碧昂丝是因为她是位名人,具有广大的影响力和知名度,但是没有说她是其他女性的典范,故排除C;文章中没有任何地方说明碧昂丝是个女权主义者,故排除D。故选B。
【闪光词汇】

feminism n.女性主义
enthusiastic adj.热情的,热切的
whole-hearted adj.一心一意的
hesitant adj.迟疑的,犹豫不定的

【难句解析】
① It didn't work out with any of those men, but going out with them made it all the more obvious to me what I want a partner to be: cute, smart, funny and yes, feminist.
【解析】本句为并列复合句。前一个分句的主干为“it didn't work out with any of those men...”。后一个分句的主干为“going out with them made it all the more obvious to me”,其中it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是从句“what I want a partner to be”。冒号后面的内容是“what I want a partner to be”的具体内容。
② But how do you spot a male feminist if he's not at an abortion rights rally wearing a “This Is What a Feminist Looks Like” T-shirt?
【解析】本句为复合句。主干结构为“how do you spot a male feminist”,前面的but为转折连词,表明本句与上一句的转折关系,后面的if引导条件状语从句,“wearing a ‘This Is What a Feminist Looks Like’ T-shirt”是现在分词短语作伴随状语,其中“This Is What a Feminist Looks Like”为复合定语,修饰T-shirt。
PASSAGE TWO
【参考译文】
    一个9岁的在校女孩独自进行了一项科学实验,这项科学实验最终揭穿了一项广泛实行的医疗手段。埃米莉·罗莎的研究目标是一个叫做“接触疗法”的治疗方法。其鼓吹者宣传通过操纵病人的“能量场”来使病人感到舒服些,甚至治愈他们的各种疾病。然而艾米丽的实验证明这些能量场是不能被察觉的,即使是受过培训的“接触疗法”的实践者也不行。显然由于形势的公共价值,杂志编辑乔治·伦德伯格在电视上露面并说到:“年龄不是问题。重要的是科学。而这是好的科学。”
    艾米丽的妈妈琳达·罗莎是一个注册护士。她开展反对“接触疗法”的运动快10年了。琳达在80年代后期开始接触这种疗法。那时她了解到这种疗法在科罗拉多州被允许在护理课上教授给学生。也就是说有10万(在美国有4.8万)受过训练的实践者根部不会触摸他们的病患。相反,他们在距离患者几英寸的地方摆动双手,推动能量场直到它们保持平衡。“接触疗法”的宣扬者说这些操作可以治愈伤口、减轻疼痛、缓解高烧。这些推论得到足够多的重视以至于许多著名的医院会雇佣这些“接触疗法”的治疗师,佣金甚至高达每小时70美元,有时是在手术中,以使病人的能量场得到平衡。
    然而罗莎找不到任何证据能够证明这疗法有效。为了提供有力的证据,这些“接触疗法”的治疗师们不得不坐下来进行单独的测试,有时他们对这种实验并不热心,即使詹姆士·兰迪提供了100万的奖金奖励给任何能够证明人类“能量场”存在的人(他曾经有过一个尝试者,但是她失败了)。怀疑者可能认为这些“接触疗法”的治疗师不敢将自己的理念置于危险之中。但是谁能够拒绝一个天真的四年级学生呢?艾米丽如是说道,“我觉得因为我是个孩子,所以他们并没有重视我。”
    实验十分的直观:21名“接触疗法”的治疗师穿过屏风,手掌朝上。艾米丽用自己的左手或者右手握住,然后这些治疗师要分辨出来到底是哪一只手。结果出来后,他们所做并不比猜的结果要好多少。如果有“能量场”的话,他们也不能够感知到它。
【精解精析】
44.D【定位】Emily Rosa's target was a practice known as therapeutic touch (TT for short), whose advocates manipulate patients' “energy field” to make them feel better and even, say some, to cure them of various ills.(第一段第二句)
【解析】语义题。第一段介绍了接触疗法的作用原理,原文第二句提到,埃米莉·罗莎的研究目标是一个叫做“接触疗法”的治疗方法。其鼓吹者通过操纵病人的“能量场”来使病人感到舒服些,甚至治愈他们的各种疾病。原文使用whose引导的非限制性定语从句说明“接触疗法”的具体内容,D项符合原文所述,故选D。
45.D【定位】A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line.(第三段第三句)
【解析】细节题。第三段提到TT行医者不愿意接受独立测试,可能的原因是“TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line”,即“TT行医者害怕他们所坚信的理论会冒风险”,可见他们不想把真相公之于众,故选D。
46.B【定位】全文。
【解析】主旨题。本文旨在证明任何一种已被广为接受的观念或理论都有可能是错误或虚假的,故选B。
【闪光词汇】

cook up 伪造,虚构
debunk v.揭穿
therapeutic adj.治疗的
practitioner n.行医者
manipulation n.处理,操作
therapist n.临床医学家
demonstrate v.证明,论证
skeptic n.怀疑者
on the line处于危险中

【难句解析】
① A nine-year-old schoolgirl single-handedly cooks up a science fair experiment that ends up debunking a widely practiced medical treatment.
【解析】本句是一个复合句,主句是“a nine-year-old schoolgirl single-handedly cooks up a science fair experiment”,后面是一个由that引导的定语从句。
② To provide such proof, TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing,something they haven't been eager to do, even though James Randi has offered more than $1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field.
【解析】本句是一个复杂句,后面跟一个有even though 引导的条件状语从句,句子中间还包含一个名词补语。
PASSAGE THREE
【参考译文】
    我妈妈的父母来自匈牙利,但是我的外祖父是在德国接受教育的。看起来他能够用九种语言进行对话交流,但是并不乐意用德语。每天早晨,他会看德语报纸。这报纸是所属美国并发行于纽约的。
    我的祖父是他的家庭中唯一一个来自美国的人。他仍然还有亲戚住在欧洲。第一次世界大战爆发的时候,他很遗憾我的舅舅,也就是他唯一的儿子,要赶赴战场,那样的话就是表亲对抗表亲了。在战争早期时候,外祖母请求外祖父不要再带德国报纸回家了,而可以带英文报纸回家。他嘲笑这个想法,解释说用德文这个事实并不能让它成为德国报纸,它只不过是一份用德文印制的美国报纸。但是外祖母坚持己见,似乎那样就可以使邻居看不到他在读德文报纸而将他视为德国人了。在这样的强迫下,外祖父最终放弃了德文报纸。
    有一天不可避免的事最终还是发生了。舅舅弥尔顿收到了自己的传单。祖父母很失落,但他的妹妹也就是我的母亲却很激动。她终于可以向大家吹嘘自己即将奔赴战场上的士兵兄弟了。我舅舅意识到自己10岁的妹妹和她所有的朋友是如何看待自己的,跑出去给她们所有人都买了 服务徽章,这表明她们有亲近的人在军队服务。在他要离开的日子,他所在的整个军团都在同一车站出发。那儿有乐队演奏,我的母亲和她的朋友去车站为舅舅送行。每个人都戴了服务徽章,挥舞着印有美国国旗的小旗子,在他们离开时为这些男孩们鼓舞士气。
    离别的时刻来临了,士兵们,都是些新兵,没有接受过任何训练,但都发了制服,就登上了火车。乐队在演奏,人群在欢呼。虽然没人注意到,但我敢肯定,外祖母一定为她奔赴战场的唯一的儿子流下了眼泪。火车发出呻吟声,好像它知道将要把这些乘客送往怎样的终点似的,不久它就开始发动了。欢呼和摇旗还在,演奏仍在继续,火车却缓缓驶离了车站。
    火车突然停下来的时候已经开出有大概1 000码的距离。乐队停止了演奏,人群停止了欢呼,当火车缓缓又驶回车站的时候每个人都吃惊地盯着看。在车门打开、士兵走出火车之前的时间仿佛是永远。有人喊到, “是停战协议!战争结束了!”一时间,所有人都一动不动,然后人们听到有人在对那些士兵下达命令。这些士兵分成两排站好,走下台阶,伴随着乐队演奏的苏萨进行曲,在街上游行,被人群迎进了家门。一旦游行结束,这些人就散开了。我外祖母说那是伟大的一天。只是她有点失望这天没有再延续的长一些。第二天,舅舅返回了工作岗位,外祖父也开始重新读德文报纸,直到他生命的最后一天。
【精解精析】
47.D【定位】But my grandmother insisted, if only that the neighbors not see him read it and think he was German.(第二段倒数第二句)
【解析】推理题。文章第二段中说,战争开始以后,外祖母就哀求外祖父改变读德文报纸的习惯,她的理由是邻居看见了会认为外祖父是德国人,显然德国人是不受欢迎的,由此可推断读德文报纸可能会招致敌意,故D为答案。 “我”的外祖父最喜欢使用德文,不能等同于德语说得最流利,故排除A;文章没有说外祖母不喜欢德文报纸,故排除B;原文第二段第三句所说的“cousin fighting against cousin”是一种比喻说法,不能理解为外祖父有表亲住在欧洲,故排除C。故选D。
48.C【定位】第三段。
【解析】细节题。第三段提到小妹妹对哥哥即将入伍感到很兴奋,希望能借此夸耀一番,而service pins恰恰可以拿来炫耀,能够满足小妹妹的心愿, 可见能够取悦她,故C为答案。该段很清楚地说舅舅是意识到妹妹和她朋友们的心思才跑出去买服务徽章的,因此他买这些并不是为了自己,也不是为了父母,因此A、B、D均不符合文意。故选C。
【闪光词汇】

sneer v.嘲笑
assemble v.集合,聚集
brag v.吹牛;夸耀
throng n.人群
parade v.列队行进

【难句解析】
① He sneered at the idea, explaining that the fact that it was in German did not make it a German newspaper, but only an American newspaper, printed in German.
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干是“he sneered at the idea”,而explaining引导的伴随状语之后是that 引导的宾语从句,该从句中又包含同位语从句“that it was in German did not make it a German newspaper”。
② My uncle, realizing how he was regarded by his ten-year-old sister and all of her friends, went out and bought them all service pins, which meant that they had a loved one in the service.
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干是“my uncle went out and bought them all service pins”。realizing 引导伴随状语,其后是how引导的宾语从句。which引导非限制性定语从句,该从句中又包含了宾语从句“that they had a loved one in the service”。
PASSAGE FOUR
【参考译文】
    1936年一个寒冷的一月份清晨举行了国王乔治五世的葬礼。紧随着他的棺材的是他的长子——英俊并深受宠爱的威尔士王子。他将要继位成为英国的下一代国王。他是异常优秀的——一位贵族典范。在任何场合下他都从善如流。每个人都期盼着他能将君主的古板甩掉。但随着时间流逝,随着他对皇室的责任的开展,人们开始议论说王子已经快40岁了但却仍然未婚。只有少数特权人士知道他一直在与一位神秘的美国女性交往,这位女性背叛了其丈夫而与这位未来的英国国王有染。那就是著名的沃利斯·辛普森夫人,也是王子铁了心要迎娶的女人。
    后来他成了国王,但仍然没人能够劝服他放弃辛普森夫人。即使是首相斯坦利·鲍德温也不行。当他说英国不会想要一个离过婚的美国女人来当王后的时候,他道出了整个国家的心声。威斯敏斯特和白金汉宫之间的牧师的汽车不再行驶了。但国王丝毫不让步。国王被迫退位,全国的旗帜全部降半旗。
    1937年的夏天一场婚礼在法国举行。这对夫妇看起来有些紧张,尤其是新郎。他一年前还是国王。现在他和他的妻子被称为温莎公爵和公爵夫人。
    如今那个放弃了整个帝国的男人和那个放弃两任丈夫的女人可以尽情的享乐了。在战争年代,他们散步在巴拿马运河,并且不时地会参加当地伟大的文化节日,他们服饰的华丽经常会吓到当地人。但那个曾经的国王发现现在他只是一个名流了。更有流言称他们当时正在办理离婚所以才要在镜头前做出恩爱的样子。
    4年后,轮到国人来对公爵进行哀悼,并反思这个男人以王室换爱情的决定是否妥当,公爵夫妇为此所付出的代价是否值得。
【精解精析】
49.D【定位】But as time passed, as he spanned between the royal duties, people began to remark that the prince was approaching 40 and still unmarried. Only a privileged few knew that he’d been stepping out with the mysterious American, a woman who was cheating on her husband with the future king of England. This was the lady known as Wallis Simpson, whom he was determined to marry.(第一段最后三句)
【解析】推理题。根据第一段最后三句,威尔士王子已年届四十却迟迟未婚,与一位美国已婚女士有染,由此可知,这位女士并不受人尊敬,故D与原文不符,为正确选项。第一段前三句可推断出A,他是国王的长子,且即将宣布继位;第一段第四、五句可推断他是一位王室典范,能与所有人和睦相处,故B正确;由第一段第六句“...shake the stuffiness out of the monarchy”可推断人们期望他能为王室体制带来新的变革,故C正确。因此,A、B、C均予以排除。
50.C【定位】最后一段。
【解析】细节题。最后一段指出由国人来反思这个男人以王室换爱情的决定是否值得,反思的主体并非公爵夫妇,C表述不符合文意,为正确选项。根据文章第四段第二句“...emerged every now and then to attend the great cultural festivals...”,可见公爵夫妇在婚后参加了巴哈马群岛的传统文化节日,故A符合文意;由该段第二句中的“they startled the locals with the brilliance of their attire”可推断出他们身着盛装令当地人感到惊诧,故B符合文意;第四段最后一句“...parade their devotion for the cameras”可以推断他们刻意在公众面前展示其婚姻和爱情,故D符合文意。故选C。
【闪光词汇】

exceptional adj.异常的;杰出的
privileged adj.有特权的;特许的
shuttle v.往返运送
parade v.展示,炫耀

【难句解析】
① Only a privileged few knew that he'd been stepping out with the mysterious American, a woman who was cheating on her husband with the future king of England.
【解析】本句的主干结构为“only a privileged few knew that...”,从句的主干结构为“he'd been stepping out”,其中with引导伴随状语,the mysterious American与a woman形成同位关系,由who引导的定语从句修饰先行词a woman,用以解释前面的the mysterious American。
② Four years later it was the nation's turn to mourn the Duke and to reflect on one man's decision to trade the crown of England for the love of Wallis and the price they had both had to pay.
【解析】本句的主干部分为“it was the nation's turn”,后面紧随两个不定式短语to mourn...及to reflect on...;其中,第二个不定式短语的宾语有两个,分别为one man's decision与the price;后置定语“to trade the crown of England for the love of Wallis”用以修饰中心词decision,而省略that 的定语从句“they had both had to pay”修饰先行词 the price。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51.Supportive.
【解析】态度题。倒数第二段说明,当被问到是否支持男女平等时,没有男性会直接拒绝,人们的态度介于直接表示支持、犹犹豫豫地支持或是稍微回避这三者之间,由此可知,整体而言,大多数男性还是支持男女平等的。因此答案为Supportive。
PASSAGE TWO
52.Because they sensed no harm in a little girl's experiment.
【解析】细节题。第三段最后埃米莉的话给出了解释“I think they didn't take me seriously because I'm a kid”,可见他们认为参加一个小女孩的测试不会有危害。因此答案为Because they sensed no harm in a little girl's experiment。
PASSAGE THREE
53.Pressure.
【解析】语义题。根据题干定位至第二段。该词的意思主要由前文推断。祖父母关于是否应该再看德文报纸有两个回合的讨论:第一回合是外祖母哀求,而外祖父嘲笑,第二回合是外祖母坚持,并且提出了非常有力的理由,而外祖父明显是被迫答应的,所以duress一词应与“压力,逼迫”等有关,因此答案为Pressure。
PASSAGE FOUR
54.The king's abdication was a great grief to the nation.
【解析】推理题。第二段最后一句指出,他被迫退位,全国降半旗致哀,故答案为The king's abdication was a great grief to the nation。
55.Critical.
【解析】态度题。作者在文章最后一段用了“mourn, reflect, the price they had both had to pay”等语言, 表明作者并不赞同这段婚姻,故作者持批判的态度,因此答案为Critical。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
题目要求考生就“高等教育的重要性”为题讨论高等教育的目的,属于观点论证型文章。分析题目中的提纲可知,文章可以按下面的结构展开:
第一部分为导论。
第二部分阐述高等教育的重要性。
第三部分进行总结,最后表达自己的观点。
【高分范文】

The Importance of Tertiary Education

    As a response to the increasingly high demand of society for intellectual resources, people of all ages are in eager need of getting tertiary education at a college or university. The trend is quite understandable because tertiary education is of great importance to one's life, especially in terms of career preparation, new experiences, and enrichment of knowledge.
    Firstly, college education is the initial step to start one's career. The fierce social competition requires people to be well equipped with knowledge and skills, which is the primary reason why they choose to go to college. They can learn new skills for careers with a lot of opportunities. Furthermore, such professional fields as information technology, business, and communication are expected to need a large workforce in the coming years.
    Secondly, students go to colleges and universities to gain new experiences. This often means having the opportunity to meet people different from those in their hometowns. For most students, going to college is the first time they've been away from home by themselves. What's more, this is the first time they've had to make decisions on their own. Making these decisions increases their knowledge of themselves.
    Lastly, looking for self-knowledge, people also attend a university or college to expand their knowledge in subjects they find interesting. For many, this will be their last chance for a long time to learn about something that doesn’t relate to their career.
    In conclusion, going to college is one of the most important experiences in one’s life. It helps to prepare people for future career and provide chances of learning about themselves and the world they live in.
【闪光词汇】

tertiary education 高等教育                     
in need of 需要
in terms of在……方面;依据,按照             
enrichment n.充实,丰富
first of all 首先                                
be equipped with 装备有;具有
in addition 另外                               
lastly adv.最后
self-knowledge n.自知之明,自我认识

MODEL TEST THREE答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

Authority

    In many countries, authority is seldom questioned, / either because it is highly respected, or because it is feared./ For example, children are not expected to question their teachers in school. / It may be considered improper for young businessmen to suggest ideas / that differ from those of older, more experienced members of the business. / In other countries, children are trained to question and search for answers. / By the time students reach the age of 14 or 15, / they will have developed exciting new ideas in all fields of science and the arts.
【闪光词汇】

authority  n.权威,权力    
respected adj.受尊重的   
consider  v.考虑    
improper adj.不恰当   
experienced adj.经验丰富的  
businessmen  n.商人

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

British Educational System

    Today I’ll talk about the British educational system, including the primary and secondary education and the higher education in Britain.
    First, I'll briefly introduce the primary and secondary education in Britain. In England and Wales, (1)students study in primary school from age five until eleven. They attend secondary school until age sixteen. Before graduating, students usually take seven comprehensive exams, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams. After passing the GCSE exams, students choose to study two to four subjects intensely for the GCE Advanced Level exams, called “A levels”. (2)At eighteen, they enter higher education to focus on a particular subject called a “course”.
    Now let's move on to the higher education in Britain. First, I'll talk about the general practices in England and Wales, and then the general practices in Scotland.
    In England and Wales, prospective university students apply for places through the Universities Central Council on Admissions (UCCA). Students do not apply directly to the universities themselves. (3)Successful candidates are admitted directly into a specific degree “course”. A degree course normally takes three or four years to complete. At most universities students study only one major subject. Each course is structured with a fixed program of classes for the entire three years. Increasingly, (4)universities in the United Kingdom are offering classes on a modular basis, which allows students to broaden their studies creating a more interdisciplinary program.
    (5)At a British university, more emphasis is placed on independent, self-directed study than in the United States. (6)Classes often take the following forms: lectures, which are sometimes completely optional; tutorials, in which a small number of students meet with the lecturer; and seminars, larger discussion classes often based upon seminar essays.
    (7)In Scotland, there are a variety of tertiary level options available for students,the most important of which are the colleges of further education, the central institutions, teachers colleges and the universities. (8)The colleges of further education provide vocational and technical education, and enroll more students than all other tertiary institutions combined. Central institutions provide courses leading to the Higher National Diploma (HND), bachelor's degrees and some specialized master's degrees. These institutions do not have the authority to directly validate degrees and tend to offer a narrower range of subjects than the universities. (9)Many have close ties to local businesses, offering cooperative work experiences that provide students a period of practical training.
    Scottish universities are quite distinct from their British counterparts. (10)In fact, they more closely resemble European or American universities. The standard Scottish university degree is a four-year Honors degree BA Hons. Students are rarely admitted directly to a degree “course”. Usually they are admitted to a faculty or simply admitted to the university as a whole. Scottish university students begin with a broad-based program during the first year and choose a specialization after the second or even the third year. Students may also elect to complete a three-year Ordinary degree. This is a broad-based degree that does not represent a “failed” Honors degree.
    With this, we're coming to the end of today's lecture. Next time, we'll talk about university degrees.
【精解精析】
1.five
【定位】...students study in primary school from age five until eleven.(第二段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,学生在5岁是开始上小学,故填five。
2.higher education
【定位】At eighteen, they enter higher education to focus on a particular subject called a “course”.(第二段最后一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,在18岁时,他们开始接受高等教育,着重于一个称为课程的具体的特殊学科,故填higher education。
3.Degree courses
【定位】Successful candidates are admitted directly into a specific degree “course”.(第四段第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,成功的候选人直接加入一个具体的学位课程的学习中。同时,需要注意的是所填词位于句首,应注意大小写,故填Degree courses。
4.modular
【定位】...universities in the United Kingdom are offering classes on a modular basis,which allows students to broaden their studies creating a more interdisciplinary program.(第四段最后一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,英国的大学在模块的基础上提供教学,这会使学生们扩展他们的学习,创造一个跨学科的项目,故填modular。
5.independent and self-directed
【定位】At a British university,more emphasis is placed on independent, self-directed study than in the United States.(第五段第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,英国大学比美国大学更加强调独立自主的学习,故填independent and self-directed。
6.lectures
【定位】Classes often take the following forms; lectures,which are sometimes completely optional...(第五段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,授课采取以下授课方式:讲座,这种讲座有时是完全可供学生选择的,故填lectures。
7.available
【定位】In Scotland, there are a variety of tertiary level options available for students,the most important of which are the colleges of further education,the central institutions,teachers colleges and the universities.(第六段第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,在苏格兰,有多种可供学生多项选择,其中最重要的是继续教育,中央机构,高校教师和大学的学院,故填available。
8.technical
【定位】The colleges of further education provide vocational and technical education,and enroll more students than all other tertiary institutions combined.(第六段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,进一步教育学院提供职业技术教育,并招收比其他所有大专院校更多的学生相结合,故填technical。
9.local businesses
【定位】Many have close ties to local businesses,offering cooperative work experiences that provide students a period of practical training.(第六段最后一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,许多人密切联系当地企业,提供协同工作经历,为学生提供一个时期的实践培训,故填local businesses。
10.Honors degree
【定位】In fact, they more closely resemble European or American universities. The standard Scottish university degree is a four-year Honors degree (BA Hons).(第七段第二、三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,事实上,他们更接近欧洲或美国的大学。标准的苏格兰大学学位是一个为期四年的荣誉学位(荣誉学士)。同时,需要注意的是所填词位于句首,应注意大小写,故填Honors degree。
【闪光词汇】

Higher education  高等教育   
prospective  adj.预期的   
seminar essays  研讨会论文集  
candidate n.候选人         
cooperative adj.合作的     
broad-based adj.无限的

SECTION B
Conversation One
【听力原文】
W: I'm very curious about this: are there foods that do actually have happy chemicals?
M: Oh, absolutely. You know, (1)how we feel, how we cope with stress, how we think, how clearly we think, are all directly affected by the foods that we eat.
W: We actually went out to ask people what foods they ate in order to make themselves happy. And many people take chocolate as their happy food, while some may prefer pizza.
M: I prefer the latter. Pizza would be my happy food.But those aren't the foods that actually make you happy. There are foods that really directly affect our brain with certain chemicals. So fish is really a big happy food.It contains proteins which are very good to our brains. (2)Crunchy foods, like popcorn, are fabulous for making us happy.
W: Why?
M: The actual chewing mechanism can raise the happy level in the brain. So combining all these together, creating wonderful combinations of fish tacos or...potatoes with chili on top of it. Those are great combinations.
W: OK, I guess you must have a happy dinner, right?
M: Yeah, yeah.
W: OK, let's talk about food that you do tend to eat when you're stressed.
M: When I'm stressed, I eat anything salty. Popcorn—thing's like that—a pie, a chocolate. And I usually go over some kind of drink.
W: OK, drink, that's a good solution. Well, what are the real stress busters?
M: (3)Well, healthy fats, believe it or not. They are great for coping with stress. Wonderful. So, avocados, nuts, seeds.
W: That's why I'm having avocados when I'm stressed out.
M: Yes, great stress buster. Peanuts, peanut butter, and again, dairy foods are great. (4)They help reduce stress, and decrease anxiety and anger. So again, combinations, getting protein, lean beef, turkey...Make yourself turkey sandwich, and...Yes, absolutely.
W: OK, our final mood here is being energetic. How to be energetic?
M: The fluids are really critical. So water, of course.(5)There's nothing more important for your being energetic than keeping yourself drinking plenty of water. But there are other things, eggs and soy. Egg yolk and soy are a fast food lipid. So they actually create channels to allow nutritions into the brain and toxins out. And so they are so important in your diet every day. And of course, everyone loves chocolate, and we can also have coffee, tea, a little bit of caffeine.
W: It is a stimulant, right?
M: Yeah, it's a pick-me-up in the morning. It's great before exercise. You don't want too much, because it can make you feel lousy rather than better.
1.According to the conversation, which of the following is NOT affected by the food we eat?
2.According to the man, which of the following food can directly make us happy?
3.What's the function of healthy fat?
4.What kind of food combinations is suggested as the most effective to decrease stress?
5.What's the most important for being energetic?
【精解精析】
1.B【解析】题目问:下列哪一项不影响我们所吃的食物?由句(1)可知,对话中提到“how we feel, how we cope with stress, how we think, how clearly we think, are all directly affected by the foods that we eat”,但未提到食物是否会影响我们的睡眠质量,故选B。
2.D【解析】题目问:根据男士的对话,下列哪一种食物能直接使我们开心?由句(2)可知,对话中提到“Crunchy foods, like popcorn, are fabulous for making us happy”可见爆米花可以使我们心情愉悦,故选D。
3.D【解析】题目问:健康油脂的作用是什么呢?由句(3)可知,对话中提到“Well, healthy fats, believe it or not. They are great for coping with stress”,可见健康脂肪对缓解压力很有帮助,故选D。
4.A【解析】题目问:哪一种食物是最有效减压的食物呢?由句(4)可知,对话中列举了多种食物,其中提到“Make yourself a turkey sandwich”,可以推断出最有效的减压食物是火鸡三明治,故选A。
5.A【解析】题目问:保持精力充沛最重要的方法是?由句(5)可知,对话中提到“There's nothing more important for your being energetic than keeping yourself drinking plenty of water”,可以推断出保持精力充沛最重要的方法是补水,故选A。
【闪光词汇】

fabulous adj.极好的  
chemicals  n.化学药品  
combination n.结合,组合
mechanism n.机制
buster n.庞然大物;小鬼;非凡的人或物
nutrition n.营养

Conversation Two
【听力原文】
W: Today I'd like to welcome Sean Smith, who is going to talk to us about the normal and sound development of self with adopted child. Hello, Sean.
M: Hello.
W: Now Sean, what do you think is the most important factor affecting a child during his normal development of self?
M: Well, (6)actually several factors may work together to cultivate the self. Among them,a child's relationship with his mother is ranking on the top of the list, which we may also call, maternal attachment.
W: All right, then. What are the other factors required to help children realize a sound development of self? Does environment play any role in it?
M: Certainly, affectionate, caring parents are essential as well. As the child begins to develop his sense of self, he must master certain developmental tasks that are part of growing up.
W: “Developmental tasks”? Could you present us some concrete examples of such tasks?
M: (7)Developmental tasks may take different forms, such as acquisition of language and toilet training. Anything that interrupts the development of these important skills may interfere with developing a healthy self-concept.
W: But what about a child who is older when he is adopted? What effect does adoption have on a toddler?
M: Even if a toddler has been in one foster home since birth and has therefore attached himself to his foster mother, he will likely experience a series of reactions when separated from this caregiver—protest, despair, and detachment—unless his experience is monitored to help him handle the change. Consider a toddler adopted at the age of 18 months who has lived in the same foster home since birth. When he is placed with an adoptive family, (8)he is likely to experience separation anxiety from his foster mother, who can be regarded as symbolically abandoning him as his own biological mother did.
W: It's sure to say his transition to living an adoptive home may be difficult, isn't it?
M: Yes, he is past the crucial age of 7 to 12 months.
W: Why do you call this period the crucial age?
M: This period is crucial because at this time an infant may sustain the most severe damage to his mental and physical development if deprived of mothering by one significant individual.
W: Then it is essential that (9)the adoptive family offer as much affection and security as possible to reassure the child that he is safe, that they are reliable sources of loving care, and that they will help him through this difficult stage.
M: One thing we need to note is sometime a child may continue to suffer from separation anxiety in spite of these actions. Although he may not mind the actual separation from his mother when he goes to play school or day care,(10)he may become obsessed about the time when his mother is supposed to pick him up at day care or kindergarten; tardiness may provoke fears about car accidents or death.
W: An adopted child, then, has at least an average chance of successful individuation, assuming he is adopted by loving parents. Thank you, Sean. Thanks for talking with us.
M: My pleasure.
6.What do we know about a child's relationship with his mother?
7.What problem may adopted children have?
8.What do we know about adopted children according to the interview?
9.Which of the following is INCORRECT about the negative effects of adoption?
10.What do we know about a child suffering from separation anxiety?
【精解精析】
6.C【解析】题目问:对于孩子与母亲的关系,我们知道些什么?由句(6)可知,实际上几个因素可能共同发展,其中,孩子与母亲的关系的依恋性居于排名之首,我们也可以称为,母性依附,故选C。
7.B【解析】题目问:领养的孩子可能有什么问题?由句(7)可知,发展性的任务也会采取不同的形式,例如语言的获得和卫生间训练,故选B。
8.A【解析】题目问:通过采访,对于领养的孩子,我们知道些什么?由句(8)可知,他很可能会因为把他的养母当成了自己的亲生母亲,由于养母的象征性地放弃而导致他经历分离焦虑,故选A。
9.D【解析】题目问:下列关于领养的消极影响哪一项是不正确的?由句(9)可知,领养家庭提供尽可能多的感情和安全感,尽可能安抚他是一个安全的孩子,他们是被关爱,这些将会帮助他度过这段困难的阶段,故选D。
10.A【解析】题目问:对于受苦于分离忧虑的孩子,我们知道些什么?由句(10)可知,他可能会痴迷并执着于他的母亲去托儿所或幼稚园接他,而迟到可能会引起有关车祸和死亡的恐惧,故选A。
【闪光词汇】

master v.掌管   
developmental adj.发展的    
transition n.过渡,转变    
crucial  adj.重要的     
deprive v.剥夺         
individuation n.个性化

PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】D
【译文】虽然白色过去不受欢迎,但目前它是婚纱的首选颜色。
【解析】本题考查让步状语从句。as是连词,引导让步状语从句时,往往使用部分倒装形式,故选D。
12.【答案】D
【译文】不光是你,我在这一点上也犯了错误。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致。由not only...but also修饰的主语,其谓语动词应按照就近原则与最近的主语保持一致, 故选D。
13.【答案】C
【译文】由于长时间不下雨,田地都干旱了。
【解析】本题考查独立主格结构。该句前半部分是There be的完成式独立主格结构,与时间状语for a long time相吻合,故选C。
14.【答案】A
【译文】所涉及的数百万次的计算如果用手工操作,那么到计算完成的时候,将失去其全部的实际意义。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。这是一个虚拟语气的句子,条件句使用了省略if倒装句形式(还原后应为if they had been done),动作与过去事实相反。故选A。
15.【答案】B
【译文】电视使我们几乎能够在事情发生的那一瞬间就看到发生过程。
【解析】本题考查定语从句。moment后接的是省略关系副词when的定语从句,B项符合要求。关系副词when 通常不能省略,但用于day, year, time, moment等词后时可以省略。故选B。
16.【答案】C
【译文】乔治亚大学,于1785年特许成立,是美国第一家州立大学。
【解析】本题非谓语动词题。charted是过去分词作后置定语,修饰句子的主语the University of Georgia,故答案为C。该句已含有谓语动词was,并且句中没有任何连词,所以charter只能用非谓语形式,由此排除选项A和B;由in 1785可知charter这个动作已经发生了,而选项D表示的是未来的动作,因此排除选项D。
17.【答案】B
【译文】下面哪项中的斜体部分被用作宾语补足语?
【解析】本题考查句子成分。某些及物动词接了宾语后句子意义仍不完整,还需要使用一个句子成分来补充说明宾语的意义、状态等,该成分被称为宾语补足语。宾语和它的补足语构成复合宾语。判断句子是否含有宾语补足语要看句中的宾语与其后的成分之间是否构成逻辑上的主谓或主表关系。选项B中的learning English是谓语动词find的宾语,与其后的形容词difficult构成了逻辑上的主表关系,所以说difficult是宾语补足语,故选B。选项A中的斜体部分为系动词tasted的表语;选项C中的斜体部分为系动词fell的表语;选项D中的斜体部分为主语补足语。
18.【答案】A
【译文】我要做的就是启动笔记本电脑,从iTunes上下载更多的歌曲。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致。代词all作主语,表示物时,谓语动词应用单数形式;表示人时,谓语动词应用复数形式。that I have to do是定语从句,用来修饰先行词all,并不能影响主句谓语动词的单复数, 但通过该定语从句的时态可知主句应用现在时,故选A。
19.【答案】B
【译文】求职者填完了申请表,但她不知道应该将表格交到哪个办公室。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。由“疑问词+不定式”构成的不定式短语可以用作动词宾语,相当于从句,但不定式的逻辑主语必须是句子的主语,否则应用宾语从句。该不定式中send的逻辑主语就是句子的主语She,She是send这个动作的施动者,所以该不定式短语应该用主动的结构,由此排除选项A。选项D中have sth. done的意思是“让别人做某事”,与原句意思不符,故排除。该不定式实际上是“send sth. to +地点”的结构,虽然该句的地点which office room被提到不定式的前面,但to不能省略,因此排除选项C,故选B。
20.【答案】C
【译文】迫在眉睫的是应立即采取措施来遏制该情况。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。在It is+adj./过去分词+ that从句的结构中,若表语是表示“令人吃惊的、重要的、必要的、关键的”等形容词或过去分词时,其后的主语从句应使用虚拟语气“should do”,并且 should可以省略,所以只有选项C符合条件。故选C。
21.【答案】B
【译文】横扫这一地区的暴风雪一定会导致接下来日子里的蔬菜短缺。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。rarity意为“稀少,稀有”,指某物天生就稀有,如钻石等;scarcity意为“缺乏”,指某物由于某种原因而短缺;invalidity意为“无效力”;variety意为“种类;多样”,结合句意可知选B。
22.【答案】C
【译文】在建造高层大楼的时候,人们使用起重机将建筑材料吊到较高楼层。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。toss意为“投,掷”;tow意为“拖,拽,牵引”;hurl意为“用力投掷”,均不符合句意;hoist 指“吊起,升起,举起”,符合句意。故选C。
23.【答案】A
【译文】高层对于妇女社会地位的态度的明显转变将逐渐渗入日本现行的法律体系中。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。permeate意为“渗透”,符合句意。probe意为“调查”,与句意不符;grope意为“摸索”,与句意不符;violate意为“违反”,为及物动词,后面不能再接介词。故选A。
24.【答案】A
【译文】绿队在决赛中胜了红队,报了一箭之仇。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。revenge oneself on sb.意为“向某人报仇”,符合句意。reverse意为“倒转”;revert意为“回复,恢复”;reveal意为“泄露,揭示”,三者均不符合句意。故选A。
25.【答案】B
【译文】厨房小而紧凑,残疾人可以毫不费力地够到所有东西。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。compact意为“紧凑的”,符合句意。conventional意为“常规的,传统的”;compatible意为 “兼容的”;concise意为“简明的,简要的”,三者均不符合句意。故选B。
26.【答案】A
【译文】我们应该优先处理人民的生计和其看得见的利益。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。precedence意为“优先权”;suggestion意为“建议”;attempt意为“意图”;cost意为 “成本,代价”。根据语境,priority意为“优先处理的事”,故选A。
27.【答案】C
【译文】当一场飓风即将发生时,气象局通常会为此发布警示。
【解析】本题考查短语理解。in the way意为“阻碍”;out of hand意为“无法控制”;at hand意为“即将到来”;by the way意为“顺便说一下”。根据语境,about to occur意为“即将发生”,故选C。
28.【答案】D
【译文】尽管食物很糟,他还是尽量对此赞美,以换得主人的好感。
【解析】本题考查短语理解。talk loudly about意为“大声谈论某事”;sing in a high tone of意为“用很高的音调唱歌”;whisper意为“窃窃私语”;praise意为“赞美”。根据语境,sing highly of意为“赞美”,故选D。
29.【答案】C
【译文】对于没能满足您提供免费车辆的请求,我们深感抱歉。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。surprise意为“使 感到惊奇”;contest意为“竞争”;meet意为“满足”;gain意为“获得”。根据语境,entertain意为“满足……的要求”,meet one's request意为“满足某人的请求”,故选C。
30.【答案】B
【译文】托马斯·爱迪生将数年时间花在了为人类带来光明的具有里程碑式意义的发明上。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。historical意为“有关历史的”;historic意为“具有历史性意义的”;sentimental意为“多愁善感的”;archaic意为“陈旧的”。根据语境,monumental意为“具有里程碑式意义的,重要的”,故选B。
PART IV CLOZE
【参考译文】
    所有新工具的设计和实现都是基于电子仪器的精密实验。首先,人类将“豚鼠”作为实验的常规实验对象。检测所完成工作的数量以及它在体内累积的热量。有实验发现,由于关节和肌肉应该在其正常位置,扭曲的关节和肌肉的伸展将无法正常使用。用Tichauer博士提出的建议而设计的工具对同一个人再次测试。所有这些测试显示的对以往的旧设计的极大改进。
    Tichauer博士所使用的电子仪器之一,肌动描机器,通过人类肌肉发射的可视信号来完成工作。另一台用来检测其他工具危险性的机器, 基于新设计从而得出证明结论。测试的结论之一就是:用的这台机器三脚架梯子比四条腿的梯子更稳定和更安全。
    这个工作吸引了效率专家和工业操作效率的研究分析工程师的关注,但它的价值远远不止于此。Tichauer博士首先想到的是刀具使用者的健康。46个一直坚守在生产线或者其他工作岗位上整天工作的人,或者是那种工作压力都积压在身体某一部位的轻体力劳动者。随着时间的推移,这样的压力会导致致残的疾病。此外,肌肉疲劳是一个严重的安全隐患。
【精解精析】
31.H【解析】本题考查形容词。空格前面为冠词a,后面是名词tool,可知空格处应填入形容词。此处意为“一般使用工具来给人类充当的小白鼠做实验”,结合上文提到的“新工具的设计”,可推测这里指的应是使用“常规”工具,regular意为“常规的,普通的”,符合句意,故选H。
32.K【解析】本题考查形容词。原句大意为“当关节扭伤和肌肉拉紧时,其功能没有关节和肌肉正常的时候好”。此处由and连接的为并列结构,根据下文stretched muscles“拉紧的肌肉”,可知,此处应填入首字母大写的形容词,且该词应能修饰“关节”,故选K,twisted意为“扭曲的”。F项exaggerated为干扰项,意为“夸张的”,不符合题意。
33.I【解析】本题考查动词。O项causes意为“导致”,I项made意为“使得”,从语义上看,两者均符合,但是从语法上来看,空格后是复合宾语,而O项causes后面直接加宾语,只有made可接复合宾语,故选I。此处made 的复合宾语结构“made visible through electrical signals the work done by human muscle”较为复杂,因为宾语较长,宾语和宾语补足语出现倒置的情况,简化并还原后应为:made the work visible。
34.L【解析】本题考查动词。根据前面主语another machine可判断,该处谓语动词应为第三人称单数形式,故答案锁定在L项measures与O项causes。根据上下文,此处是要表达“另外一台机器测量工具的危险性”,measure 意为“测量”,cause意为“导致”,measure符合此处文意,故选L。
35.N【解析】本题考查代词。本题考查定语从句的关系代词。空格前面有介词upon,关系代词在从句中作宾语,所以只能用which,不能用that,故排除干扰项D,选N。
36.A【解析】本题考查名词。由空格前面的One可知,此处应填一个单数名词。结合句意“用该机器进行实验得出的一个结论是三条腿的活梯用起来比四条腿的梯子更安全”及选项,可知A项符合此处句意,conclusion意为“结论”,故选A。
37.C【解析】本题考查形容词。由上文可推知,此处是指三条腿的活梯更安全、更稳固,故答案可锁定在B项与C项。solid 意为“固体的;结实的”,一般强调物质的固态性,而stable意为“稳定的,具有稳定性的”,一般强调事物的稳定性,更符合题意,故选C。
38.M【解析】本题考查名词。由空格前的first和空格后的is可判断此处应填一个单数名词。结合句意“Tichauer博士最初是为了工具使用者的健康”及选项,可知这里指的应是“Tichauer博士的想法”,perspective意为“看法,观点”,thought意为“想法”,故排除干扰项G,选M。
39.J【解析】本题考查形容词。此处所指的工作应该与前文提到的生产线上的工作相类似,但这里并非指具体的某种劳动,而manual work为固定搭配,意为“体力劳动,手工作业”,是一个泛指的概念,故J项符合题意。
40.E【解析】本题考查名词。根据原句中的is a可判断,此处应填入一个单数名词。结合句意“长此以往,这种压力能导致人残疾。此外,肌肉的疲劳还是一个严重的安全和常识”可知,此处应是指“安全隐患”,hazard意为“危险,隐患”,safety hazard表示“安全隐患”,符合句意,故选E。
PART V READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE
【参考译文】
    我曾经有一位老师,他把那些将事情搞砸了的学生称为“白痴”。这位老师名叫杰里·库普钦斯基,是一位令人望而生畏的乌克兰移民,他当时担任我们的乐队指挥。当有人在演奏中音调不准时,他会让整个乐团停下来,然后大吼道:“第一小提琴声部哪个人聋了?!”他让我们一直排练,直到每个人的手指几近流血。他还会用铅笔戳我们以此来纠正我们不标准的双手和臂膀姿势。
    如果换做是在今天,他准会被解雇。但在几年前他去世之际,他得到的却是众人的敬仰:40年来他教过的学生和曾经的同事都从全国各地飞回新泽西我的家乡,大家拖着老乐器一起举办了场音乐会悼念他。我也提着好久都没摸的中提琴参与到其中。那一天,当我们音乐会的幕布升起时,我们所组成的是一支与纽约爱乐乐团规模相当的交响乐团。
    大家对K先生这位坏脾气老师的真情流露让我震惊。但让我同样震惊的是他这些学生的成就。有一些人成为了音乐家,但大多数人都在其他领域脱颖而出,像法律界、学术界还有医学界。研究表明,在音乐教育与学术成就之间存在着一种正相关性。但仅仅只有这些,无法解释我们对一位曾在整个青少年期折磨过我们的老师姗姗来迟的、澎湃的感恩之情。
    我们正处于对美国教育体系的全国性自责浪潮当中。我们的学生落后于世界其他地方的学生,这一点让我们每天都感到痛心疾首。美国15岁的学生在自然学科上被其他12个国家的同龄人甩在身后,而在数学科目上则落后于17个国家的学生,超越美国学生的同龄人不仅仅在亚洲,而且还有一些来自芬兰、爱沙尼亚和荷兰。我们的这种集体性恐慌——即对美国教育不足的恐慌——被资本化,与之相关的书籍与咨询业务已成长起来,整个业界都在追问:当今的美国教育者做错了什么?
    将K先生的教育法与各领域——从音乐到数学再到医学界——最新的发现相比较,会得出一个统一的、惊人的结论:现在是时候该重振老式教育法了。不仅仅是传统教育,而是老式教育。从这个意义上讲,也就是我们多数人在孩童时期所熟知的、带有严明纪律与严苛要求的教育方法。这么说是因为:它真的管用。
    我不是在这里呼吁虐待;如果有一位教师辱骂我的孩子,我会第一个站出来投诉。但最新的证据对我这一小小的建议给予了支持。诸多研究现已表明,除了别的以外,适度的童年压力还能使人受益;赞美会如何挫杀孩子们的自尊;以及为何与美国高中毕业生的学术能力评估测试分数相比,决心、勇气是更佳的成功先兆。
    所有这些都与更友善、更温和的理念背道而驰,在过去的几十年中,后者一直主宰着美国教育界。人们普遍认为,教师应该帮学生们梳理知识,而不是将要点硬敲进他们的脑袋。进行项目与协作性学习会受到人们的称赞;而像讲课灌输及死记硬背这样的传统方法则被嘲笑为训练与扼杀——会令人不悦,会被当成吸干年轻头脑创造性与积极性的一种方式而遭到人们唾弃。但是,传统的智慧是错误的。

【精解精析】
41.D【定位】But when he died a few years ago, he was celebrated: forty years' worth of former students and colleagues flew back to my New Jersey hometown from every corner of the country, old instruments in tow, to play a concert in his memory.(第二段第二句)
【解析】推理题。由定位句“But when he died a few years ago, he was celebrated...”可以推断,他去世时受到学生们的尊敬,故D符合文意。第一段首句提及当学生搞砸了时,他会很严苛地对待他们,但并非肉体或精神上的折磨,也并非鼓励的态度,故A、B不当。根据第二段首句可知,放在今天, 他会被解雇,但在过去,事实并非如此,故C不符合文意,故选D。
42.C【定位】An entire industry of books and consultants has grown up that capitalizes on our collective fear that American education is inadequate and asks what American educators are doing wrong.(第四段最后一句)
【解析】细节题。定位句中capitalize on sth.意为“从某事物中获利”,即美国人对教育制度的担忧正好使得出版业和咨询业从中获利。但C与原文意思不一致,故应选C。从第四段第二、三句可知,美国学生在科学、数学等领域要落后于其他国家,可排除A; 由最后一句中的collective fear可知,美国人对现行教育体制存在共同的担忧和质疑,故B、D正确,排除,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

belated  adj.迟来的
capitalize on利用某事物;从某事物中获利
trail in  (在比赛、竞赛等中)输,失败,失利
grit  n.坚毅,勇气
consultant  n.顾问

【难句解析】
① An entire industry of books and consultants has grown up that capitalizes on our collective fear that American education is inadequate and asks what American educators are doing wrong.
【解析】本句为复合句。主干结构为“an entire industry has grown up”,由of引导的介词短语作industry 的定语;定语从句“that capitalizes on our collective fear...and asks what American educators are doing wrong”修饰先行词“an entire industry of books and consultants”,而“that American education is inadequate”为同位语从句,用以说明fear的内容。
② Studies have now shown, among other things, the benefits of moderate childhood stress; how praise kills kids' self-esteem; and why grit is a better predictor of success than SAT scores.
【解析】本句主语为studies,谓语为have shown,而among other things为插入语成分;宾语为三个并列短语结构,第一个宾语中心词为the benefits,第二个和第三个分别为how和why引导的宾语从句。
PASSAGE TWO
【参考译文】
    跑酷是一种体育的活动,但是难以归类。跑酷不是极限运动,而是一种技艺或与武术中的自卫类似的训练。据大卫·贝尔说,跑酷的物质方面就是在紧急情况下尽力越过面前的所有障碍。在逃跑或追捕过程中,你以这样或那样的方式移动,以帮助你以最大优势追到某人或某物。因此,当面对一个人充满敌意的对抗时,一个人能够说话、战斗,或是逃离。武术是一种战斗训练形式,而跑酷是飞行训练的一种形式。由于其独特的性质,也就是常说的跑酷有自己的独特的定义:“跑酷就是跑酷。”
    跑酷的一个重要特点是效率高。跑酷的举动不只是尽可能快地,而且是让最节省能量、最直接的方式成为可能。这种特性区别于类似自由表演的做法,自由表演强调自由的运动,如杂技。效率高还包括要避免受伤,无论是短期的还是长期的,跑酷的非官方口号是成为第一,要不然就是最后一个。
    跑酷者声称,跑酷也通过提高批判性思考的能力来影响一个人的思维过程,这种批判性思考的能力可以使一个人克服日常身体和精神上的障碍。跑酷比体操的预定动作少,因为它不具有相应的列表“动作”。每个跑酷者面临障碍时都提出了独特的挑战,如何才能有效地克服它,取决于他们的体型、速度和角度,以及障碍物的物理结构,跑酷训练是训练身体对头脑里的障碍做出适当的应对反应。通常这种技术不能,也不需要进行分类,或是给既定的名称。在许多情况下,有效的跑酷技术的完成取决于通过体重和动量来完成看似不可能的困难,或是通过身体实现速度的再分配。吸收与重新分配能量也是一个重要因素,比如着陆时身体蜷曲可以减少地面对腿和脊椎的冲击力,这个因素使跑酷者可以跨越的高度甚至超过了一些杂技或体操中我们认为合理的高度。
    许多基本的跑酷技术,都强调初学者的多功能性和有效性。最重要的是良好的跳跃性和着陆技术。辊,用于限制后回落的影响,并进行自己的前进势头,往往强调最重要的技术学习。许多跑酷者存在过多的大下降和滚动的问题以及发展的共同问题。由于跑酷者大幅下降,有时会受到关于安全问题的批评。在英国一些社区会有被执法、消防和救援的潜在危险警告。尽管戴维·拜乐在练习跑酷时从没有受过重伤,但也从没有人认真研究过高处跳落的健康问题,跑酷者强调循序渐进地练习动作以防意外。
【精解精析】
43.B【定位】第一段、第二段。
【解析】细节题。第一段第二句提到,跑酷不是极限运动,而是一种技艺或与武术中的自卫类似的训练,但并未说跑酷源于武术,故排除A和C。文章第二段第二句提到,从事跑酷的人不只移动得快,而且消耗的能量最少,但并未说跑酷能帮助我们走得越来越快,故排除D。首段倒数第二句又提到,武术是一种格斗训练,而跑酷是一种逃跑训练,由此可以推断跑酷对于逃跑的人来说,十分有用,故选B。
44.A【定位】Although David Belle has never been seriously injured while practicing parkour, there is no careful study about the health issues of large drops and tracers stress gradual progression to avoid any problems.(最后一段最后一句)
【解析】细节题。定位句提到练习跑酷的人强调循序渐进的练习以避免出现问题,也就是他们相信长期有效的练习可以避免伤害,A项是对原文的同义转述,故选A。根据B项中的beginners定位到末段第一句,该句强调初学者应该多学一些基本技能,以锻炼其技能的多样性和有效性,由此可知,对于初学者忍耐力并不是第一位的,故排除B。C项 “所有的跑酷者都不怎么关心自己的安全”,太过绝对,可排除;文中并未提到large drops是否是跑酷最难的技术,只是说large drops有一定的危险性,故排除D。故选A。
45.B【定位】According to David Belle, the physical aspect of parkour is getting over all the obstacles in your path as you would in an emergency.(第一段第三句)
【解析】细节题。定位句提到跑酷的物质方面就是在紧急情况下尽力越过面前的所有障碍,结合选项可以推断跑酷最接近于障碍赛,故选B。
【闪光词汇】

parkour n.跑酷          
martial arts 武术
practitioner n.从业者
acrobatics n.杂技;技巧  
tracer n.跑酷者
predefined adj.事先确定的
gymnastics n.体操   
momentum n.动力,冲力
versatility n.多才多艺

【难句解析】
① Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor, such as body rolls when landing which reduce impact forces on the legs and spine, allowing a tracer to jump from greater heights than those often considered sensible in other forms of acrobatics and gymnastics.
【解析】句子的主干是“Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor”,后面用 such as给了一个例子,其复杂之处在于含有which引导的定语从句,修饰先行词body rolls,中间被when landing这一省略形式的状语从句隔开,该状语从句也修饰body rolls。allowing...作句子的结果状语。
② Although David Belle has never been seriously injured while practicing parkour, there is no careful study about the health issues of large drops and tracers stress gradual progression to avoid any problems.
【解析】本句有两个难点:一个是新词parkour,意为“跑酷”,parkour一词来自法文的parcour,有“超越障碍训练场”的意思。另一个是gradual progression,意为“循序渐进的过程”。
PASSAGE THREE
【参考译文】
    终于养成了良好的运动习惯,然而你被骗了,你被感冒命中,你只能靠边站,现在你觉得你所有的好状态在获得能量前都是徒劳无功的。其实恢复没有这么快。
该区首都医学协会的一位内科医生兼传染病专家小西奥·霍奇说,如果只是普通的感冒,你或许可以继续锻炼。“你需要经常性了解你的身体,但一般而言,如果你没有任何潜在的问题,感冒时运动通常是安全的,”霍吉补充说,快速身体检查是个好主意。
    但网上跑步教练兼麦克米伦的所有者麦克米伦·格雷戈说,在颈部以上的头痛,健康的人会想通过降低强度和持续时间来改善他们的锻炼。换句话说,得了感冒就不应该再做高强度的训练,而是应将运动强度控制在轻度至中度范围内,当地的耐力运动教练阿莉莎·莫里森说。墨里森说,“和我在一起工作的运动员,特别是如果他们正在训练铁人比赛,连一天的训练都不想落下。所以,我可以告诉他们的是去做一些强度比较低的跑步或单车运动,而不是大强度运动或疾跑,有时运动员骑单车时感觉很好,所以就开始采取强度训练。”
    麦克米伦说,以他的经验,刚开始感冒时休息一下会节省后期两三周的时间。“给你的身体一个休息的机会,”他建议。目前还不清楚你到底丢失了多少锻炼的机会,马里兰大学运动机能学系副教授罗斯米勒说。但是,一个长跑运动员可能比一个短跑选手更容易受到影响。霍奇指出,应该记住,不去健身房锻炼不仅能够让你自己的身体得以休息,还可以让他人免受你的细菌侵害。“只要你是打喷嚏和咳嗽,那么你就是有传染性的,”他说,这些症状可以很容易地导致持续7到11天的感冒——感冒典型的持续时间。“所以你要做的事情是留在家里。”
    还有就是终极性感冒,会导致你极度疲劳、身体疼痛、胸闷和或发烧。米勒说,你要做的就是呆在家里,躺在床上,让免疫系统逐渐变好。或者更糟的是,你可能会真的生病。“你开始低烧、呼吸急促,但你自我感觉良好,所以你继续努力”,霍吉说。“四、五天之后,你开始呼吸急促,接着开始咳嗽出痰。接下来的事情就是你患上肺炎。现在你正要生病和缺席数周。”
    霍吉说:“如果这样的情况发生,记得要放松,尤其是当你再次回到锻炼时,如果你两个星期都缺席的话,我想你至少要用两个星期弥补。”举个例子,如果你参加一个马拉松选手的训练,你不会想一开始就长跑作为你的第一次训练。麦克米伦说,休息时间对身体和精神都是好的,特别是跑步者的思想都集中在一个特定的比赛中。
【精解精析】
46.C【定位】In other words, when a head cold hits is not the time to do high-intensity drills but rather to keep your exercise in the light-to-moderate range, says Alyssa Morrison, a local endurance sports coach.(第三段第二句)
【解析】细节题。定位句中阿莉莎·莫里森指出,感冒时不适合进行高强度的运动,将运动强度调整至轻度或中度比较适合,故C为答案。第三段第三句中提到,莫里森知道有些铁人比赛的参赛者连一天的训练都不想落下,并非说他认为参加比赛而训练的人应该因为患感冒而停止训练,故排除A;虽然第三段第四句中说,莫里森可能会告诉那些运动员去做一些强度比较低的跑步或单车运动,但他并没有说这两项运动有助于人们康复,故排除B;虽然第三段最后一句中莫里森说,有时感冒后进行轻度运动的运动员感觉良好,而且开始逐渐提高运动强度,但这并不意味着莫里森认为感冒时进行轻度运动会让人们感觉良好,故排除D。
47.A【定位】McMillan says in his experience, taking it easy on “the front end” of a cold can save you two or three weeks down the line.(第四段第一句)
【解析】细节题。定位句明确指出,根据麦克米伦自己的经验,刚开始感冒时休息一下会节省后期两三周的时间,A与此表述相符,故 A为答案。第四段中仅说麦克米伦认为感冒时应该让身体休息一下,但并不能从他的个人经验得出人的身体需要不时地休息,故排除B;第四段第五句中,霍奇说如果感冒了还去健身房,会把感冒病毒传播给别人,这并不是从麦克米伦的个人经验得出感冒期间进行运动会传播病毒的结论,故排除C;第四段第一句中说,刚开始感冒时休息一下会节省后期两三周的时间,并不是说人们不应该严肃对待感冒,故排除D。
48.D【定位】第二段、第五段、第六段。
【解析】推理题。第二段第二句中提到了 listen to your body;第五段中提到,如果出现了重度感冒症状,还坚持高强度锻炼的话,病情很有可能加重;第六段中也说,病好了重新开始运动时,要注意循序渐进,让身体逐渐适应,因此,注意身体的信号,量力而行才是正确的锻炼态度,故D为答案。第一段开头就说,终于养成了良好的运动习惯,但突然感冒了,人们就会感觉前面的努力白费了,但文章接下来一直在讨论有些轻微的感冒不影响运动,仅需要适当调整运动强度,而重度感冒时则最好休息一下,因此,纵观全文,文章主要是引用运动及健康专家的话,讲述的是感冒时究竟是否应该继续锻炼以及应该如何锻炼。A“良好的运动习惯难以维持”、B“有不同 种类的感冒”和C “运动员更执着”都不是文章所要传递的信息,故均排除。
【闪光词汇】

underlying adj.潜在的    
surge n.激增
duration n.持续时间
contagious adj.传染性的
interval n.间隔,中间休息    
congestion n.拥塞,阻塞

【难句解析】
① If the cold is just a head cold, you probably can continue working out, says Theo Hodge Jr., an internist(内科医生)and specialist in infectious diseases with Capital Medical Associates in the District.
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干为“...says Theo Hodge Jr.”,该部分后面的“an internist...in the District”作Theo Hodge Jr.的同位语。第二个逗号之前的部分是间接引语,是Theo Hodge Jr.医生所说的话,其主干为“you probably can continue working out”,前面是if引导的条件状语从句。
② In other words, when a head cold hits is not the time to do high-intensity drills but rather to keep your exercise in the light-to-moderate range, says Alyssa Morrison,  a  local endurance sports coach.
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干为“...says Alyssa Morrison”,该部分后面的“a local endurance sports coach”作Alyssa Morrison的同位语。第二个逗号之前的部分是间接引语,是Alyssa Morrison所说的话,其主干为“when a head cold hits is not the time to...but rather to”,when引导的是主语从句,句首的in other words为状语。
PASSAGE FOUR
【参考译文】
    我听到敲门声,透过猫眼,看见父亲。当我打开门时,父亲开始说话,虽然他看起来似乎呼吸的很吃力,“电力是所有沿北部东海岸居民生活的动力。人们说尼亚加拉大瀑布似乎出了问题。电力线路肯定会崩溃的。”
    我很惊讶。电力线路?
    我上了电梯,门没有关。我生气了,最后爬到大堂,总共九层——找出发生了什么事。那只是像父亲在对没有运作的机器生闷气。
    突然,我们听到人们在外面喊。父亲打开窗户。“哇,看那边!”我很惊奇,打开了另一扇窗户,向外望去。这条街上挤满了车,司机们不知何时该去何地。警察满街道试图平息混乱。马路对面的工人们被困在第十一层楼,他们试图抓住栏杆,爬到安全的路上。人们的询问和沙哑的呼喊充斥着炎热的八月空气。
    我意识到父亲在说,“我们不能在这里停留。没有电力,就不会有紧急服务。如果着火了,那我们就会被困。我们走吧,我会打电话给妈妈,”他拿了一些现金和手机。我疲劳地跟着他下楼到大厅。为什么我们不能在一楼找个房间呢?
    我在一个小沙发上坐了下来。令人窒息的酒店大厅挤满了人。有些人希望得到一个房间,其他人则因为航班取消而返回酒店。许多人试图联系家人或朋友。我坐在沙发上,发现房间里唯一的光是从窗户里进入的几丝阳光。父亲不安地离开,开始在时代广场四处流浪。他再也没地方坐了,因为周围的空间都被占用了。
    几小时之后,父亲终于回来了。我想让他坐在沙发上,我试着在大理石地板上冷静下来。太阳已经落山了,房间很暗,只有两只小蜡烛照亮了墙上的影子。
    我躺在地板上,试图打个盹。表面上看似是很困难的,但天气凉爽宜人。我迷迷糊糊开始打盹却又突然从瞌睡中醒来。起初,这是一个令人兴奋的冒险,但现在我只希望电能回来,让我们能回到我们的房间。我躺在那里闭着眼睛,睡不着觉,听着身边的人说话。我终于睡着了,但是我又醒了,因为我问爸爸现在是什么时候了。
    “八点。灯从距离我们两个街区远开始亮了。电力应该很快回来的。” 他停顿了一下,脸上一脸的遐想,“你知道,昨晚我看到了时代广场上空的星星。我想已经很久没有人见到过这样的景象了。”
【精解精析】
49.B【定位】第四段。
【解析】语义题。需要通过上下文的细节描写来判断。第四段描述纽约停电后街道上的景象:到处都是汽车,不知道该走该停,也不知道往哪儿走。而后又说有许多警察试图缓解这一pandemonium,可见该单词意为“混乱”,故选B。
50.D【定位】He paused, a look of reverie on his face, “You know, last night I was able to see the stars over Times Square. I wonder how long ifs been since somebody was able to see that.”(最后一段最后两句)
【解析】态度题。文章最后,作者的父亲说“昨晚我看到了时代广场上空的星星。我想已经很久没有人见到过这样的景象了”,可见他非常怀念、 珍惜这种感觉,故选D。
【闪光词汇】

pandemonium n.大混乱      
stifle  v使窒息
astound v.使震惊  
interrogate v.审问,审讯;询问  
toss v.投掷;使摇晃,晃动
mollify v.平息
raucous adj.沙哑的    
reverie n.幻想

【难句解析】
He paused, a look of reverie on his face, “You know, last night I was able to see the stars over Times Square. I wonder how long it’s been since somebody was able to see that.”
【解析】A look of 表示“一脸……的表情”,本句看似简单,实则寓意深远,简单的句子表达中富含深刻的思考。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51.To prove the necessity of reviving traditional education.
【解析】细节题。根据第五段首句的描述,将Mr.K.的教学方式与最新研究成果进行对比,可得出一个惊人的结论:是时候恢复传统教育了。因此答案为To prove the necessity of reviving traditional education。
PASSAGE TWO
52.Skills of overcoming everyday physical and mental obstacles.
【解析】语义题。文章第三段首句提到,跑酷者声称,跑酷也通过提高批判性思考的能力来影响一个人的思维过程,这种批判性思考的能力可以使一个人克服日常身体和精神上的障碍, 即指的是克服日常身体和精神障碍的能力。因此答案为Skills of overcoming everyday physical and mental obstacles。
PASSAGE THREE
53.Putting out of action.
【解析】语义题。由构词法判断,sidelined 一词很可能是过去分词,其动词原形由side和line两个单词组成,从字面来看,表示“偏离了原来的线”,据此推断其意思为“退出,中止”。第一段第一句说,终于养成了良好的运动习惯,突然就感冒了,这时,人们会认为感冒时不能做运动,此前的许多努力都白费了,也就是说,被迫中止运动,因此答案为Putting out of action。
54.Consult with a doctor.
【解析】细节题。第二段第二句霍奇指出,通常来说,如果只是普通的感冒,是可以继续锻炼的,但先征询一下医生的建议总归是个好主意,因此答案为Consult with a doctor。
PASSAGE FOUR
55.Angry but excited.
【解析】态度题。根据文章开头部分提到作者无法使用电梯时感到非常生气;但在倒数第二段第四句话中作者又说起初这是一个exciting adventure“令人激动的冒险”,可见作者的态度是既生气又觉得很兴奋。因此答案为Angry but excited。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
本题讨论手机是否可以在课堂上使用,命题与同学们的生活息息相关。考生可以在具体行文方面:
第一段阐述背景,并概述正方观点,把手机带入课堂的好处,即能在紧急时刻及时与外界取得联系,并且有助于提高学习效率,帮助记录笔记。
第二段概述反方观点,概述在课堂上没有必要带手机的原因,即会干扰学生学习,学生有可能会在考试中借助手机作弊,同时也增大了手机被偷的概率。
第三段阐述个人观点,并总结全文。
【高分范文】
    Cell phones are of great convenience in our life. However, there are arguments about whether or not they should be used in schools. Some say that to forbid cell phones completely is to ignore some of the educational advantages of having cell phones in the classroom. Cell phones contribute a lot to students' learning. They are great memory aids because if students are slow to copy notes from the board, they can take pictures of the missed notes instead and view them later with their cell phones. Besides, they can keep students safer by allowing them to ask for help during an emergency.
    However, others claim that cell phones pose a disruption to the educational environment. Students cannot fully benefit from classroom instruction if they are distracted by incoming text messages and vibrations from incoming calls. And using cell phones for cheating is also a big concern. On top of that, allowing cell phones in schools increases the risk of theft.
    Despite the positive effects that can emerge from permitting students to bring their cell phones into the classroom, cell phones, in my opinion, should be banned in class to help keep annoyances and distractions to a minimum since some of the students still have trouble taking responsibility for their own behavior.
【闪光词汇】

memory aids记忆辅助工具,记忆辅物  
disruption n.扰乱   
vibration  n.震动
on top of that另外  
emerge from...自……出现  
annoyance n.令人烦恼的事物
keep...to a minimum 将……保持在最低限

MODEL TEST FOUR答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】
    I do not know who wrote these words, / but I have always liked them as a reminder / that the future can be anything we want to make it. / We can take the mysterious, hazy future / and carve out of it anything that we can imagine, / just like a sculptor carves a statue from a shapeless stone. / We are all in the position of the farmer. / If we plant a good seed, we reap a good harvest. / If our seed is poor and full of weeds, / we reap a useless crop.
【闪光词汇】

reminder n.提醒的人或事
hazy adj.朦胧的,模糊的  
carve v.开创
sculptor n.雕刻家
shapeless adj.无形的
reap v.收获
harvest n.收获
weed n.野草

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

Good Writing

    What is good writing? Different cultures using different languages may come up with very different answers to the question. However, as far as English is concerned, a set of basic characteristics has been promoted by educators in English-speaking countries. (1)They are:unity,coherence, emphasis development and clarity. While these good old values are still relevant, today's discussion of good writing focuses on a different set of concepts. I’ll define good writing using different terms: good writing is good thinking; good writing involves thoughtful revision; good writing is directed toward an audience; good writing achieves a clear purpose; good writing expresses ideas clearly.
    Firstly, good writing is good thinking. Good thinking leads to good writing, and muddy thinking can only result in muddy writing. As simple as that. Writing is a thinking process; it is not making a big deal out of nothing. (2)Good writing should be substantive, really having things to say. Not only having things to say, but also having insightful things to say about the topic. (3)While good writing is expected to be free from grammatical and other errors, it is worth repeating here that good writing is not good grammar or vice versa. At the advanced level, you should be much more concerned with higher and more important issues of writing in English. If you were excited at all by a piece of writing, most likely, it was for one or a combination of the following reasons:
    1) (4)because it enlightens you or sheds light on the subject;
    2) because you have felt something similar but in a rather vague and superficial way;
    3) because (5)you have felt exactly the same, but have never been able to express yourself in such an effective and elegant manner.
    (6)Secondly, good writing involves thoughtful revision. For the overwhelming majority of writers, good writing is ninety-nine percent hard work and one percent inspiration. Experienced writers subject their writings to numerous revisions before feeling satisfied.
    Thirdly, good writing is directed toward an audience. Notice the use of the word “audience” here: it usually refers to viewers and listeners, but now its reference has expanded to include readers too, particularly in discussions of writing. You should remember that what is appropriate for one kind of audience may not be appropriate for another. (7)The intended audience determines your choice of words, your sentence length and patterns, the overall tone, the details that would be included in your writing, etc.
    Fourthly, (8)good writing achieves a clear purpose. Good writing must achieve your intended purpose. If you want to write about how to make Jiaozi, your reader, after reading your writing, should get everything he or she needs to know about how to make Jiaozi, from the necessary ingredients to step by step instructions.
    Last but not least, good writing expresses ideas clearly. (9)Good writing reflects good thinking, and good thinking needs to be put in precise, concise and lucid prose. An important task for revision is to trim all the deadwood, pruning all the redundancies, wordiness, and confusing and misleading ambiguities. (10For non-native speakers,to express yourself clearly often involves making your writing more idiomatic, reducing the level of negative interference of your native language and to bring your writing closer to English-speaking readers.
    So far, we have discussed five characteristics of good writing. In later lectures, you will learn in greater detail about how to write to different audiences to achieve specific purposes in clear and effective styles.
【精解精析】
1.coherence
【定位】They are: unity, coherence, emphasis development and clarity.(第一段第四句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,好的英文写作有以下几个特征:整体性、流畅、重点明确以及清晰。此处缺少“流畅”一词,故填入coherence。
2.substantive
【定位】Good writing should be substantive, really having things to say.(第二段第五句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,好的写作应该是有实质内容的,应该是有真实的言论的,故填入substantive。
3.good grammar
【定位】While good writing is expected to be free from grammatical and other errors, it is worth repeating here that good writing is not good grammar or vice versa.(第二段第七句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,虽然好的写作应该是没有语法和其他简单错误的,但值得强调的是好的写作并不仅仅是好的语法,或者说好的语法并不是好的写作,故填入 good grammar。
4.shed light on/elaborate
【定位】...because it enlightens you or sheds light on the subject.(第二段倒数第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,如果你对读到的一篇文章感到很兴奋,那可能是因为这些原因,其中包括因为这篇文章使你得到启发,或者说对事物进行了清楚的阐释。故填入shed light on/elaborate。
5.the same
【定位】...you have felt exactly the same,but have never been able to express yourself in such an effective and elegant manner.(第二段倒数第一句)
【解析】分析定位句可知,当人们对读到的某一篇文章感到兴奋时,可能是因为文章所写和你所想的相同,故填入the same。
6.revision
【定位】Secondly, good writing involves thoughtful revision.(第三段第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,好的写作需要深刻思考后进行修改,故填入revision。
7.tone
【定位】The intended audience determines your choice of words, your sentence length and patterns, the overall tone, the details that would be included in your writing,etc.(第四段倒数第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,潜在的观众 能够决定写作时的句子长度、句式,总体的基调,以及其他的细节等。题目中缺少的是“总体的基调”,故填入tone。
8.purpose
【定位】...good writing achieves a clear purpose.(第五段第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,好的写作期望达到一个清晰的目的。故填入purpose。
9.concise
【定位】Good writing reflects good thinking, and good thinking needs to be put in precise,concise and lucid prose.(第六段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,好的写作能够反应出良好的思维能力。而良好的思维能力需要用准确、精确、流畅的文章表达出来。此处前后已经有precise和lucid 这两个词,故填入concise。
10.idiomatic
【定位】For non-native speakers, to express yourself clearly often involves making your writing more idiomatic,reducing the level of negative interference of your native language and to bring your writing closer to English-speaking readers.(第六段倒数第一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,对于非本土的英语语言使用者来说,想要清楚的表达你自己经常会要求你的写作更通顺,更加本土化。故填入idiomatic。
【闪光词汇】

promote v.提高,提升
thoughtful adj.深刻的
grammatical adj.语法的
inspiration n.灵感
reference n.指向,暗示
ambiguity n.模糊,不清楚

SECTION B
Conversation One
【听力原文】
M: Hello, Alice.
W: Hi, Stephen.
M: Do you use social media much, Alice?
W: I do, (1)especially with friends who live abroad.
M: Same here. In the past few years, social networking websites like Twitter and Facebook have experienced a huge rise in the number of people using them. (2)Lots of people use sites like Facebook and Twitter to share photographs or web links. They also use them to publish short messages or status updates about what they're doing.
W: A status update is a way of telling other users about what you are doing right now. But this can sometimes reveal personal information.
M: That's right. Social networking websites have been in the news recently because of worries about their safety. There's evidence to show that criminals are trying to scam people into giving away their passwords or other confidential information.
W: What is scam?
M: (3)Scam is to cheat or trick somebody into giving you money or an important piece of information. Experts say that sites including Facebook are obvious targets. With information from 600 million computers, experts say social networks provide a lucrative hotbed of opportunities for fraudsters. It could be very profitable or beneficial for criminals trying to access people's personal information. Fraud is the name given to the criminal act of cheating somebody for money—and a fraudster is somebody who commits fraud.
W: Sounds terrible.
M: Do you know the word phishing?It's spelt differently to how you might expect it to be p.h.i.s.h.i.n.g. (4)Phishing is where you get an email or message that you think was sent by somebody you know. But appearances can be deceiving.
W: I thought the word you meant was fishing.
M: Phishing emails fish for information about people—that's why the word sounds like fishing, the creatures in the sea. They might appear as an email from somebody you already know, or pretend to be from a trusted website or company. Phishing emails encourage you to hand over important personal information, such as your password or username. And with this information, criminals might be able to gain access to, or get into your Facebook or your Twitter account.
W: So are there any ways we can protect ourselves from this kind of scam or fraud?
M: Well, (5)it's important to be very careful about the information you share online. Lots of social networks have advice or guidelines on creating a secure password and on how to stay safe online.
1.What's the woman's main purpose in using social media?
2.Which of the following is NOT the purpose of people using social sites, according to the man?
3.According to the man, what does “scam” mean?
4.According to the man, what does “phishing” mean?
5.According to the man, which is NOT the way to protect ourselves?
【精解精析】
1.D【解析】题目问:女士使用社交媒体的主要目的是什么?对话中,男士问女士是否频繁使用社交网络,由句(1)可知,女士回答说是的,特别是与国外的朋友联系时,故选D。
2.B【解析】题目问:根据男士的话,下面哪一个不是人们使用社交网站的目的?对话中男士说很多人使用像Facebook和twitter这样的网站发布短信息,或者更新关于自己在做什么的状态。他们也用这样的网站去分享照片或网络链接,由句(2)可知,男士并没有提到利用社交网站去更新软件,故选B。
3.D【解析】题目问:根据男士的话,scam是什么意思?对话中女士问男士scam是什么,由句(3)可知,男士回答说诈骗是通过欺骗方式骗得某人的钱或重要信息,故选D。
4.D【解析】题目问:据男士所言,网络钓鱼是什么意思?由句(4)可知,男士在对话中提到网络钓鱼是指你认为从你认识的人那里收到一封邮件或一条信息,故选D。
5.A【解析】题目问:据男士所言,以下哪项不是保护我们自己的方法?对话中,女士问男士,有没有方法可以保护我们不受骗?由句(5)可知,男士回答说在网上分享信息要非常小心,这是很重要的。很多社交网络有关于设置安全密码和如何保持上网安全的建议和指南,并没有提到“安装防骗软件”,故选A。
【闪光词汇】
social media社交媒体    link n.链接         update v.更新
criminal n.罪犯      password n.密码     fraud n.骗局
Conversation Two
【听力原文】
M: With the do's and don'ts of lending money to families, we are joined by Mility Hopson, GMA financial contributor and president of Ariel Capital Management. Welcome.
W: Thank you.
M: Is there a yes-no answer to the question: should you lend family money?
W:(6) I wouldn't call it a yes-no answer; I would start with a very basic idea. Before you think about this familiar obligation issue,(7-1)let's start with: Can you afford it? And if you can't afford it,that answers the question right away. Also can you afford it if they don't  pay you back? A bank thinks about the same thing. They assess the risk of the loan they are going to make, and they don't make loans that are going to make them insolvent. You shouldn't either, but if you go down this path, the one thing that I suggest for you that helps mute some of the resentment or problems that can occur:document it. Documentation helps a lot.
M: Someone said, the interest rates are low, so this is a good deal. We do look at family as a good deal, even for paying interest. That's usually lower than the market rate, right?
W: Well,(8)I would start with,you want your names, the date, the amount, the purpose which you also have the right to know.
M: And you should tell them that you don't want to pay for their trip to Disney World.
W: Absolutely. (7-2)The terms may or may not include interest.  They may include a payment plan.  And last but not least, sign it, copy it, make sure you both have a copy and when you get into issues, you pull out that piece of paper,
M: This is so loaded, but it is hard to say no. You love this person, right?
W: Well, it's hard to say no, but sometimes you have to say no.
M: And so that will affect your relationship, because you are going to deal with this person at holidays and family reunion.
W: (9)But you should know that it's better than dealing with them when they are facing bankruptcy, because you didn't force them to look themselves in the mirror and try to take accountability or the  life style that they were trying to maintain, which they quite frank they could not afford. It was just the  fact. There were no two ways about it.
M: Just now we've been talking about you as the bank in the family. What if you need to borrow money?  How do you approach your family member?
W: Well,(10)if I need to borrow money, I will go to them in the most professional way and be the one saying this is what I need the money for. I'd like to document this and write this down, and this is  when you can be expected to receive the payment.  If I don't pay you back, I would be here before the  money is due to renegotiate these terms, so they get a sense that I am very serious, very credible.
M: Millity Hopson, thanks a lot for the good advice.
6.What is Mility Hopson's attitude towards lending money to family?
7.Which suggestion is NOT given by Mility Hopson while asked for lending money?
8.Which of the following is NOT mentioned that you must put in your documentation while lending money?
9.Which reason backs up your behavior of not lending money though you love them?
10.Which of the following is NOT recommended to do if you are borrowing money?
【精解精析】
6.C【解析】题目问:Mility Hopson对于将钱借给家人的看法是什么?由句(6)可知,Mility Hopson对这一问题进行了很客观的分析,首先要看自己能否承受得起;其次再考虑如果他们借了钱不还,自己是否能够承受。这些分析表明她对借钱给家人这一问题的态度是十分客观的,故选C。
7.D【解析】题目问:下面哪一项不是Mility Hopson对于借钱时所给的建议?分析听力原文可知,A项“当你承受不起的时候不能借给别人钱”是她的意思,B项的“当你面临破产的时候不要借给别人钱”也在文中出现,C项的做记录也是她给出的建议之一,D项并没有提及,故选D项。
8.D【解析】题目问:下面哪个没有提到借钱的时候你必须放在你的文档?由句(8)可知,D项的利率并没有被提及,故选D项。
9.C【解析】题目问:哪个理由支持你虽然很爱他们但是却不借钱给他们呢?由句(9)可知,当他们面临破产的时候不能借给他们钱。故选C。
10.A【解析】题目问:如果你借钱的时候,下面哪个不建议你做?由句(10)可知,当你不能还钱的时候要通知他们,在借钱的时候并不能预知以后的事,故选A项。
【闪光词汇】

obligation n.义务,责任
assess v.评估
payment n.付款,支付
resentment n.憎恨
document v.记录
insolvent adj. 破产的
professional adj.专业的

PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】B
【译文】我有两个儿子,但是他们都不喜欢吃甜食。
【解析】本题考查不定代词用法。由于前后两个分句是转折关系,因此but后需用否定意义的代词,排除A和C,none用于三者及以上的否定;对于两者的否定,即与both相对的是neither,故选B。
12.【答案】C
【译文】据报道,大多数被收养的孩子都想知道他们的亲生父母是谁。
【解析】本题考查限定词的用法。it是该句的形式主语,that后面的内容为句子的真正主语。其中adopted children作主语从句的主语,故选most作形容词修饰adopted children, C为正确答案。B项most of表示“多数”时后面不直接跟名词,而是跟修饰名词的定冠词、指示代词或物主代词,不符合原句语法。故选C。
13.【答案】C
【译文】证据表明,几个月大的婴儿就可以识别具体的语音。
【解析】本题考查名词性从句。空格处引导同位语从句,解释句子的主语evidence,引导词用that,故选C。定语从句和同位语从句的区别:定语从句的关系词在从句中要充当某个成分,而同位语从句的连接词在从句中不充当成分。故选C。
14.【答案】B
【译文】令我吃惊的是,大多数学生赞成他的提议。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致。majority为集合名词,意为“大多数”,相当于most,如果所修饰的是可数名词的复数形式,其后面的谓语也应该采用动词的复数形式,故选B。
15.【答案】A
【译文】虽然她很年轻的时候就写了很多短篇小说和诗歌,但她第一次真正意义上的成功直到25岁才来临。
【解析】本题考查not...until...(直到 才 )的用法。not...until...的三种常用结构,基本结构:not+主句+until+从句;强调句结构:It is/was not until+从句+that +主句;倒装句结构:Not until+从句+倒装的主句。故选A。
16.【答案】C
【译文】她是这几个女孩子中唯一一个通过考试的。
【解析】本题考查主谓一致性。在“one of +复数名词”结构后若使用定语从句,从句中的谓语动词一般用复数; 但one若是用the only修饰,则用单数,故选C。
17.【答案】B
【译文】要不是一位过路人把这位老太太从水里拽上来,她就可能会淹死了。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。but that和but for在虚拟语气的含蓄条件句中常见,表示“要不是”,但but that是连词,but for是介词,but that相当于but for the fact that,故选B。
18.【答案】D
【译文】约翰因为睡过头而错过了早上的班车,因此造成延误。
【解析】本题考查独立主格。thus指代前面的一句话,与causing构成独立主格结构。不定式作结果状语往往表示说话人意想不到的结果或不好的结果,因此不用不定式结构,故选D。
19.【答案】B
【译文】英式英语和美式英语在词汇和语法上的差别非常小也非常少,几乎很难注意到。
【解析】本题考查句子结构。句型so...as to do表示“如此 以至于”,so...as not to do意思相反,都表示结果;本题是 so...as hardly to do,相当于 so...as not to do,所以应排除A和C;differences 与 notice构成动宾关系,所以应用被动语态,故选B。
20.【答案】C
【译文】下面哪句中含有主语补足语?
【解析】本题考查句子成分。动词后面对主语特征、状态等情况进行补充说明的成分,叫作主语补足语。如果把带有宾语补足语的句子变成被动句,原来补充说明宾语的部分就变成补充说明主语了,即宾语补足语就变成主语补足语了。如果把带有双宾语的句子变成被动句,往往是一个宾语作为被动句的主语,另一个宾语仍放在谓语动词之后。主语补足语和主语之间有逻辑上的主谓或主表关系,但双宾语之间则没有这种关系。选项C中主语the room和主语补足语clean之间是逻辑上的主表关系,故C为答案。而选项A和D谓语动词之后的成分都是状语,B是双宾语结构的被动句,故选C。
21.【答案】D
【译文】当任何非人类器官被移植到人体中时,身体马上就可以辨认出其为异体。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。novel意为“新奇的,新颖的”;remote意为“遥远的,偏僻的”;distant意为“疏远的,间隔的”;foreign意为“外来的;【医】异质的,不相关的”。所以此处取foreign的医学含义,指“排异的”。故选D。
22.【答案】D
【译文】建议你在旅行时带上旅行支票,它是一种替代现金的安全方法。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。substitute意为“代用品,替代物”;selection意为“选择,挑选”;preference意为“偏爱,优先选择”;alternative意为“二中择一,可供选择的办法”。旅行支票是一种避免携带大量现金的方法,而不是现金的替代品,故选D。
23.【答案】D
【译文】格林女士在镇上住了仅仅一年,却好像对来商店里的每一个人都非常熟悉。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。accept意为“接受”;admit意为“承认”;admire意为“钦佩”;acquaint意为“熟知”。根据上文中for only one year以及yet和空格后面的搭配介词with判断,故选D。
24.【答案】C
【译文】我根本就没那样说过,你故意曲解我的意思来证明你的观点。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。revise意为“修订,校订”;contradict意为“同 矛盾,同……抵触”;distort意为“歪曲(事实),曲解(观点等)”;distract意为“转移”。C项distorting符合句意。故选C。
25.【答案】B
【译文】研究人员发现受到病毒感染的植物会释放出一种气体,这种气体可以激活其邻生植物的抗病性。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。contract意为“感染”;activate意为“激活,使活动”;maintain意为“维持”;prescribe意为“规定,开处方”。根据句意,应选B项。
26.【答案】C
【译文】意识到市场将会出现问题,她让他取消改变系统软件的计划。
【解析】本题考查动词短语辨析。call off意为“取消”,根据语境,选项C正确。call to意为“向……喊;打电话给……”,call on意为“号召,呼吁;拜访”,call out意为“大声叫喊”,均与上下文意思不符,故选C。
27.【答案】A
【译文】真正的自信来自于认识和接受自己的长处和短处,而不是依赖于别人的肯定。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。limitation意为“缺陷;限制”,符合句意,故选项A正确。restraint意为“抑制,克制;限制”;boundary意为“边界;界限”;confinement意为“限制;监禁”,均与句意不符,故选A。
28.【答案】D
【译文】如果不给予他们选举权,这个国家就不再是个民主国家。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。deny意为“拒绝给予;否认”,指坚决地拒绝接受、给予或承认,符合句意,故选项D正确。neglect意为“忽视;疏忽”,侧重指有意地忽略或忽视,也可指粗心与疏忽;ignore意为 “忽视;不理睬”,通常指有意不顾或不理,显而易见的事物;decline意为“谢绝;婉拒”,指婉言谢绝他人的帮助或邀请等,均不符合句意,故选D。
29.【答案】C
【译文】在冬季假期时你可以省钱,因为那时经常有便宜票。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。available意为“可得到的,可获得的”,符合句意,故选项C正确。approachable 意为“亲切的;可接近的”;applicable意为“可应用的,适用的”;attainable意为“可达到的”,均与上下文意思不符,故选C。
30.【答案】C
【译文】鉴于研究项目彻底失败了,他可能会辞职。
【解析】本题考查词义理解。根据句意,项目失败最有可能导致的结果就是引咎辞职,因此原句中presumably 意为“很可能,大概”,而probably意为“很可能,大概”,两者意思相同,因此选项C为答案。 adequately意为“充分地;足够地”;subsequently意为“随后;后来”;doubtfully意为“怀疑地”,均与上下文意思不符,故选C。
PART IVCLOZE
【参考译文】
    在大约两万多年的绘画史中,人们用色素在东西的表面涂色以呈现它的形状和形态。连同其他的那些原本只是仪式性但后来被人们认为是艺术性很强的活动,比如音乐和舞蹈,绘画是人们表达自己个性以及对超物质世界的存在理解的最早的方式之一。然而,不同于音乐和舞蹈,早期的绘画形式的模型被保存了下来。现代人的眼光可以从法国拉斯科地区一万五千年前的洞穴壁画中得到审美以及考古学的,其中有一些可以用来表明早期画家高超的绘画术。就像其他的艺术一样,绘画也包含一些普遍的品质使各国和不同文化的看客能够更简单地理解和欣赏绘画。
    世界各地未毁掉的早期绘画作品都在西欧和俄罗斯被找到。但在5 000年之前,重要的绘画是在地中海东部及周围区域出现的。因此,西方的绘画中分享了欧洲的文化传统,也就是中东、地中海盆地以及新世界的地区。
    总体而言,不论是在古代英雄故事还是在早期基督教和中世纪的宗教故事的表现中,西方绘画是以专注于人体画像而出名。文艺复兴通过对自然世界的仔细检查以及对可观世界的平衡以及和谐、远景的探索来扩展西方这种专注于人体画像的传统。
【精解精析】
31.G【解析】本题考查名词。首句意为“在大约两万多年的绘画史中,人们用在东西的表面涂色来呈现它的形状和形态”,根据常识可知,人们用颜料来涂色画画,故空格所缺的单词为G项pigment,意为“色素,颜料”。故选G。
32.L【解析】本题考查形容词。由句子结构可知that引导的定语从句修饰activities,空格处所填词与后面的artistic(艺术性强的)形成对比,此句意为“连同其他的那些原本只是仪式但是后来被人们认为是艺术性强的活动,比如音乐和舞蹈”,选项中只有L项ritualistic符合题意,意为“仪式的,固守仪式的”,故选L。
33.C【解析】本题考查动词。该句意为“绘画是人们表达自己个性最早的方式之一”,由原句的时态可知,空格处应填一个动词的过去式,C项sought为seek的过去式,意为“探索,寻求”,结合句意可知此处是说人们寻求绘画的方式来表达自己的个性,故选C。
34.A【解析】本题考查形容词。结合句意“绘画是人们寻求表达自己个性以及对超物质世界的存在的理解的最早的方式之一”及选项,可知空格处为修饰understanding的形容词,而emerging意为“最初的;新兴的”, 符合题意,故选A;干扰项D项merging意为“合并的,并入的”,不符合题意,可排除。故选A。
35.B【解析】本题考查动词。根据原句可知,此处缺少一个谓语动词,综合上下文以及some examples可知,此处是表示“一些可以用来表明早期这些艺术家高超的绘画术”,B项testify意为“证明,证实”,常与介词to连用,符合题意, K项ratify意为“批准,认可”且其后不可接to,故排除干扰项K。故选B。
36.N【解析】本题考查形容词。分析句子结构可知,此处应为形容词修饰examples,此处句意应该是“世界各地未毁掉的早期绘画作品都在西欧和俄罗斯被找到”,extant意为“现存的,未毁的”,符合原文,故选N。
37.O【解析】本题考查动词。此处句意为“但大约5 000年前重要绘画产生之地(由原来的西欧和俄罗斯)转到了地中海东部及邻近地区”,shift与to搭配,意为“转到,转移到”,符合题意, F项transformed是干扰项, 表示“(使)改变,(使)转换”的意思,通常指内在的彻底的改变,且常与into搭配,不符合题意。故选O。
38.E【解析】本题考查介词短语。结合上下文,可发现此处是总结性的文字,故推测句意为“总体而言,西方绘画以专注于人体画像而出名”,E项in general,意为“大体上,一般说来”,符合题意;I项in total意为“总共”,不符合题意,可排除。故选E。
39.M【解析】本题考查名词。由上题可知,该句意为“总体而言,西方绘画以专注于人体画像而出名”,根据空格前的 the human可知,空格所填词应与human搭配构成一个名词短语,纵观选项,M项figure“人物”与之搭配构成human figure,意为“人体”符合题意,故选M。
40.J【解析】本题考查形容词。由a...examination可知空格处缺少一个形容词,此处句意为“文艺复兴通过对自然世界的检查以及……来扩展西方这种专注于人体画像的传统”,close意为“密切的,仔细的”,与examination搭配表示“仔细检查”,符合句意,故为正确答案;而H项painstaking作为干扰项,意为“艰苦的,辛苦的”,不符合原文意思。故选J。
PART V READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE
【参考译文】
    现如今生活在美国就能够印证达伦多夫推论——社会变化无处不在。科技,也就是知识在实践中的应用,是社会变化的主要来源。
    然而,我们应该铭记科技是人们的创造物,它并不是自然存在的。一只长矛或者是机器人在人们使用矛去捕猎或者用机器人制造机器零件之前都只是文化的和物质的,并不比一团乱麻的物质好多少。对一只寻找落脚点的鸟来说,一只矛或者一个机器人都能够达到它的期望。挑战者号航天飞机的爆炸以及俄罗斯切尔诺贝利核事故使人类科技遭受沉重打击。它们用事实表明精心设计的系统也会突然崩塌,而且人们并不能及时修整。既然科技是人类的创造,我们应该对它做的事负责任。消极者们担心我们最终会用我们的科技把世界以及我们自己炸成碎片。但他们说这话已经几十年了,到目前为止我们设法生存了下来并成功的繁衍。然而我们是否能够在未来的日子里继续成功下去仍然是个未知数。很明显,我们应该对科技对我们生活产生的影响做深一步的检查。
    很少有科技发展对我们生活的影响能够大于计算机革命。科学家和工程师已经设计出专门的能够完成从前只有人类才能够完成的工作的机器。已经有人断言向信息经济的转变就像其他历史性的里程碑一样,尤其是工业革命。然而当我们询问为什么工业革命是一场革命时,我们的答案并不是机器。被称为革命的主要原因是它导致了伟大的社会变化。它使社会大规模生产比重上升,通过大规模生产,使财富并不集中于少数人手中。
    用类似的手段,计算机也承诺使美国的生活结构发生革命性的变化,尤其是在使人类的思想得到解放以及为知识和交流提供了新的可能的时候。工业革命通过机械的方式补足以及代替了人力和畜力。计算机使这种发展延伸到通过电子方式补足和代替人脑的某些方面。正是计算机这种解决问题以及做决定的能力代表了它最大的可能性,以及预测对人类社会产生影响的极大困难。
【精解精析】
41.B【定位】Yet we would do well to remind ourselves that technology is human creation; it does not exist naturally. Until humans use a spear to hunt game or a robot to produce machine parts, neither is much more than a solid mass of matter.(第二段第一、三句) 
【解析】细节题。文章第二段开头提到,科技是人类的发明创造;第三句又提到,如果没有人使用,不管是长矛还是机器人都只是物品而已。由此可知,长矛和机器人只有在有人使用的时候才是科技的体现,故选B。

42.D【定位】第三段。         
 【解析】主旨题。第三段首句提到,没有其他的科技发展比计算机革命带给社会的影响更大;该段最后三句作者提到了“工业革命”成为“革命”的原因:不是因为机器变革,而是因为它带来了重大的社会变革。由此可以推知,在作者看来计算机具备引起一系列社会变化的潜质,所以才被称为“革命”,故选D。
43.C【定位】全文。
【解析】主旨题。根据题干信息可知本题答案应着眼于全文。文章探讨了科技的本质并举了计算机革命的例子,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

assertion n.声明,主张
application n.应用
remind v.提醒
shuttle n.航天飞机
flourish v.繁荣
technological adj.技术性的
design v.设计
information-based adj.以信息为基础的
particularly adv.尤其是
revolutionary adj.革命性的  
production n.生产
revolutionize v.使革命化

【难句解析】
① Until humans use a spear to hunt game or a robot to produce machine parts, neither is much more than a solid mass of matter.
【解析】本句是一个复合句,主句是“neither is much more than a solid mass of matter”,从句是由连词until 引导的。
② In somewhat similar fashion, computers promise to revolutionize the structure of American life particularly as they free the human mind and open new possibilities in knowledge and communication.  
【解析】这是一个复合句,主句是“computers promise to revolutionize the structure of American life”,后面是由as引导的方式状语从句。
PASSAGE TWO
【参考译文】
    于2012年实施的南方贫困扶植计划的其中一个部分就包括东、西科莱水道街的改进。每个人都清晰地记得这些街道糟糕的状态以及运行于中间的水道。在工程完成之时,不可否认这些区域进行了实用上和审美上的改造。前后的差别十分明显。
    改造最明显的区域是横亘于西科莱水道从墓园路到牧师路的部分。这一部分位于诺维罗公交站的重点的前方,是出租车司机使用的区域。同时它也位于迈克尔·芬尼根菜市场的前方,是农产品小贩的使用区域。这项工程允许出租车和私家车在此停泊。并且创造性的在用混凝土铸造的水道两旁建起了商用摊。
    这一举动确实十分鼓舞人心,因为它鼓励并促进了创业活动。而这正是我们所缺少的。虽然创业活动是被支持的,我们观察到在街道入口的前方有一种这样的商业活动被设置了路障。这一举措打败整个水道街的复苏工程,而水道街就是用来提供更多的泊车空间的。在这条街上放置路障本身剥夺了机动车主泊车的机会,也在实际上为这一地区制造了交通难题。
    如果历史能够当我们的引导,那么我们可以准确地预计下一步将要采取的措施就是街道防水帆布的扩展延伸,这想必你已经猜到了。这意味着我们又回到了原点。我们将会面临最初遇到的那些问题,也就是说小贩又会将他们的农产品沿着水道摆放。因此相关的政府机构必须要认真对待,并且采取任何修正性的措施一遍立即阻止这一事件的发生。伯利兹城正在朝着更好的方面转变。让我们继续保持这一状态吧。
【精解精析】
44.C【定位】At the completion of the project there was no denying the practical and aesthetical improvement in these areas. It was like day and night; the difference was obvious.(第一段第三、四句)
【解析】细节题。第一段第三、四句说明这一项目在实用和审美两方面都使该地区有了巨大改善,效果就像白天和夜晚一样明显,也就是说,这一项目的确使该地区变得更好,故C为答案。第一段第一句中说“The Southside Poverty Alleviation Project”项目中有一部分是针对the East and West Collet Canal Streets进行改善,但不能由此判定这个项目的目的就是改善运河沿岸街道,故排除A;第一段第三句说该项目有着它的实用效果,也使该地区更加美观,这不是说该项目想要提升穷人的审美,故排除B;第一段第三句说不论是在实用方面,还是在审美方面, 这一项目的效果都毋庸置疑,但并没有说该项目究竟侧重哪一方面,故排除D。故选C。
45.C【定位】The section most transformed was the area that spans the length of the West Collet Canal from Cemetery Road to Dean Street.(第二段第一句)
【解析】细节题。第二段第一句明确指出,这一区域是变化最大的区域,因此,与以前相比,它发生了很大的变化,故C为答案。虽然第二段第一句中说这一区域是变化最大的,但并没有说它以前是最乱、最穷的地方, 故排除A;文章中没有提到这一区域的人流量最大,也没有说这一区域的人口密度最大,故排除B和D。故选C。
46.D【定位】第三段。
【解析】推理题。第三段分析了商亭的存在可能会导致的实际问题,说明可能会导致拥堵,无法实现该地区的停车功能,因此,D为答案。第三段中讨论了让小商贩在这一区域设点摆摊会导致的问题,第四段继续说明如果放任不管,该地区可能会出现的问题,文章中并没有提到让私家车停放会导致问题,故排除A;第二段最后一句说明该地区采用新手段,在运河上支起水泥支撑,然后在上面设立商亭,但没有说用水泥把运河表面都盖起来了,故排除B;第三段第三句说让这些小商贩的商亭存在,等于是在入口处设置了路障,但该项目本身并没有把入口处真正堵上,故排除C。故选D。
【闪光词汇】

implement  v.实现,执行
aesthetical  adj.审美的,美学的
transform  v.转变,改变
innovative adj.创新的,革新的
venture  n.冒险
entrepreneurship  n.企业家精神
rehabilitation  n.修复,复兴
imperative  adj.极重要的
curb v.抑制,束缚

【难句解析】
① The project allowed for taxi and private motor vehicle parking and in an innovative move the construction of business booths over the canal which has been lined with concrete.  
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干为“the project allowed for...”,其宾语是由and连接的两个并列部分,一个是“taxi and private motor vehicle parking”,一个是“the construction of business booths over the canal”。which引导定语从句修饰the canal;in an innovative move为状语。
② While this is surely encouraged it has been observed that one such business has placed barricades(路障) on the street in front of its entrance.
【解析】本句为复合句。句子的主干为“it has been observed that...”,其中it作形式主语,真正的主语是 that引导的主语从句。句首的while引导让步状语从句。
PASSAGE THREE
【参考译文】
    几个世纪之前人们发现将湿气从食物中移除能够帮助保存食物。而去除湿气最简单的方法是将食物暴露于太阳和风中。北美的印第安人用这种方法做出了干肉饼(包裹着面粉的干肉做成饼干),斯堪的纳维亚人用这种方法做出了鳕鱼干,阿拉伯人用这种方法做出了干枣以及杏饼。
    包括白菜以及其他有叶蔬菜在内的食物含有高达93%的水,土豆以及其他的根生植物包含80%,瘦肉和鱼75%,其他的60%到80%不等,取决于含有脂肪的多少。如果这些水被移除,那么致使食物变坏的细菌活动就会被清除。
    在小亚细亚、希腊、西班牙和地中海地区,以及加利福尼亚州、南非、澳大利亚,水果可以通过日晒的方式处理。有各种不同的方法,但是一般来说就是将水果铺在盘中,置于干燥的园中暴晒。为了防止变黑,快干的时候会将梨子、桃子和杏置于燃烧的硫磺的烟中熏制。梅子,为了制成梅子干,另外还有各种要做成葡萄干和无子葡萄干的葡萄会被置于碱液中以使果子的皮轻轻脱落,并且还能够加快变干的速度。
    现如今食物大多是被机器风干的,传统的脱水方法是将食物置于一间温度大概在43摄氏度和110摄氏度的屋子里被热风风干。这是为蔬菜、碎肉和鱼脱水的常见方法。
    像牛奶、咖啡、茶、汤和鸡蛋这样的液体可以通过将之置于热铁桶中或者分散在有热风穿过的房间的方式脱水。用第一种方式,干掉的物质就会变成像稀薄膜一样的东西被分解,但仍然还是很粗糙。第二种方法就会像细面粉一样留在房间地面上。如果需要可见的肉和蔬菜的话,就像在汤里面,这些成分会被分别开来进行脱水,然后再混合在一起。
    相比于灌装和冷冻食物,干掉的食物所占空间更少,重量更小。正是由于这些原因,对于拥有少量储存空间的攀岩者、探险者和作战中的士兵来说,干掉的食物是无价的。在家庭妇女中也很受欢迎因为烹饪时间更短。通常就是通过热水煮的方式将失掉的水分补充回来。
【精解精析】
47.B【定位】第四段。
【解析】推理题。第四段指出,现在大多数食物都是用机械脱水的,这种脱水的传统方法是将食物放入特定的室内,其间通过的热空气在入口处的温度是110摄氏度,在出口处的温度是43摄氏度,这是风干蔬菜、肉末和鱼常用的方法,由此推断,现在蔬菜脱水最常用的方法是将其置于有热空气通过的室内风干,故选B。
48.B【定位】最后一段。
【解析】细节题。末段提到,脱水食物与同类罐装食品和冷冻食品相比,占用空间较小,重量较轻,而且不需要特殊的储存条件,因此适合没有多少存储空间的登山者、探险者和作战士兵,由此推断,脱水食物经常为士兵和登山者所用,故选B。
【闪光词汇】

pemmican n.干肉饼
lean meat 瘦肉
fume n.烟雾
prune n.梅干,干梅子
alkaline adj.碱性的,碱的
minced meat肉末,肉馅
roller n.滚筒
stockfish n.鳕鱼干
sun-dried adj.晒干的
sulfur n.硫磺
raisin n.葡萄干
wax n.蜡状物,蜡
cylinder n.圆柱体
apricot n.杏;杏树
tray n.托盘
plum n.李子
currant n.(无核)葡萄干
dehydration n.脱水
scrape off从……上刮掉

【难句解析】
① Centuries ago, man discovered that removing moisture from food helps to preserve it, and that the easiest way to do this is to expose the food to sun and wind.
【解析】本句是一个复杂句,句子的主句是“man discovered that”,句子包括两个宾语从句,由连词and连接起来。
② For these reasons they are invaluable to the climbers, explorers and soldiers in battle, who have little storage space.
【解析】本句是一个复合句,主句是“they are invaluable to the climbers, explorers and soldiers in battle”,后面是一个定语从句。
PASSAGE FOUR
【参考译文】
    在很长一段时间内,商业套装是男性办公人员的制服。但这令人十分不快。比如说,这使所有的男性看起来都差不多。
    那还不是唯一的问题:盛夏时,套装变得十分闷热,也限制了行动。而且由于套装要打领带,使得衣服将脖子勒得紧一些,导致了不必要的不舒适感和烦躁情绪。
    在一定的范围内,办公室的女性可以随心所欲的穿着。也有些女职员穿套装,但是这些套装显得更加随性一些,而且这些衣服是被设计以凸显女性的身材的。男职员的套装可不同。穿上套装的男性看起来并不吸引人。这些衣服不仅没有型、臃肿并且颜色还很单调。对男性的形体没有任何助益。穿上套装的男性职员表现自己的唯一方式就是领带的选择。领带成为了他内在性格的外在表达。不行的是,很少有男人有自己的穿衣风格,更少有男人会思考自己的性格是什么样的。正是由于这个原因,男性职员穿着令人震惊地花哨的领带去上班,还自以为自己看起来很帅的样子。
还有一个问题就是男性西装的清洁问题。男人会经常清洗自己的西装吗?一个私下的并不是十分科学的对男性职员的研究显示他们并不经常清洗。和女职员不同,女职员会经常将衣服带到洗衣店清洗,即使这件衣服在过去的三周内只穿过一次,男人可能只会在一季度里将他们的衣服送去一次。大多数男人会在一周内的好几天都穿同一套衣服,只是将领带和衬衣换一下。
    为什么男人不反抗,选择在办公室穿其他的衣服呢?好吧,他们已经很仔细的思考过这个问题了。他们已经意识到每天穿同一件衣服会节省早晨一大笔时间。大部分女职员在熨衣服和挑选配饰之前会花时间思考今天的穿着,而男性早上只需从床上跳下来,在壁橱里摸索出内衣,以及前襟没有滴上番茄酱的衬衫,再随便选一条领带,穿上前一天晚上搭在扶手椅靠背上的裤子,接下来就要找鞋子和袜子了。
【精解精析】
49.D【定位】Some women wear business suits, too; but these are usually less formal and, most importantly, they are designed to show off the feminine shape to advantage. The same cannot be said for the male suit.(第三段第二、三句)
【解析】推理题。第三段开头提到,办公室女性可以自由穿自己喜欢的衣服,只要在适当的限度之内即可,有些女性也穿西装,但这些西装通常没有那么正式,最重要的是它们被设计得可以最大程度地展现女性的身材,而男性的西装则并非如此,大多数男性穿西装时都不吸引人,那些西装没有型,颜色灰暗,也不会修饰男性的体形,由此可以推断男女西装的区别在于女式西装可以展现女性的身材,故选D。
50.C【定位】全文。
【解析】主旨题。文章读起来给人以轻松之感,最后一段提到,男性早上只需从床上跳下来,在壁橱里摸索出内衣,以及前襟没有滴上番茄酱的衬衫,再随便选一条领带,穿上前一天晚上搭在扶手椅靠背上的裤子,接下来就要找鞋子和袜子了。整个叙述非常幽默风趣,这也正是全文的基调,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

tightness n.坚固,紧密
lumpy adj.粗笨的
counterpart n.相对应的人
fastidious adj.挑剔的
irritation n.苦恼
ponder v.沉思,考虑
rebel v.反抗,反叛
feminine adj.女性的;女子气的
appallingly adv.令人震惊地
accessory n.饰品

【难句解析】
But that is not the only problem: at the height of summer the business suit is hot and stuffy, restricting movement, and since the suit must always be worn with a tie it demands tightness at the neck that causes unnecessary discomfort and irritation.
【解析】本句看起来很长,但仔细分析起来很简单。“But that is not the only problem:”是第一个句子,后面接的冒号,意味着后面所接的可以是句子,也可以是短语。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51.Technology does not exist in the natural world.
【解析】语义题。第二段首句为中心句。技术是人类的发明创造,而非自然界中存在的东西,因此the human quality of technology指Technology does not exist in the natural world。
PASSAGE TWO
52.All the work will be in vain.
【解析】推理题。第三段中说明了商亭的存在可能会导致的问题,而第四段第一句说如果不加约束,历史会重演,商贩会占用街道,那么整顿项目就白费了,故答案为 All the work will be in vain。
PASSAGE THREE
53.Cracking the skins of certain fruits.
【解析】细节题。文章第三段最后提到,用于制作葡萄干的各种葡萄被泡在一种碱性溶液里,这样可以使水果的外皮轻微裂开,并去除其表层的蜡,以便增加干燥的程度,由此推断,碱性溶液被用于破开某些水果的表皮。
PASSAGE FOUR
54.Men seldom wash their suits.
【解析】细节题。第四段倒数第二句提到,女性总是把衣服拿到干洗店去洗,即使那些衣服在过去三个星期里只穿过一次,男性则与女性不同,他们可能一个季度只送洗一次西装,由此推断,男性很少洗西装。
55.It means “stop wearing suits”.
【解析】语义题。该词所在句子为“Why do men not rebel and find some other way of dressing at the office?”,即为什么男性不寻找办公室里的其他穿衣方式呢?开头说西装是男性的工作装,第三段一直在说男士西装的一些不如意的地方,rebel原意为“反抗,反对”,由此推断rebel此处应意为“不穿西服”。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
这是一篇十分具有说服性的议论文。作文题目是论读书,因此对读书作用的不同解读就是全文的主旨。首段首先提及对于读书作用的两种不同认识,培根的言论“读书使人充实”和中国古代认为“书中自有颜如玉,书中自有黄金屋”的观点,然后再将两种观点糅合,最后提出自己的观点。第二段就自己的观点展开说明,即解释读书的三个重要作用:完善性格、增长智慧以及带来财富和名声,并分别就这三个作用进行阐释。第三段是结尾段,对文章的大意进行了总结,同时也起到了点题的作用。
【高分范文】

On Reading

    Francis Bacon, who is a very famous English essayist, once wrote, “Reading makes a full man.” While the ancient Chinese scholars firmly believed that in books we can find not only gold but also gorgeous beauty. In fact, it might be proper to say that through reading, one perfects in nature, grows in wisdom and along the way harvests fame and fortune.
    First of all, reading offers people a platform to communicate across time and space with the greatest minds living long ago and far away. Through reading, one starts a journey of self-discovery, perfects his nature, and hopefully learns how to fit in the big world. And then, reading liberates and inspires people's mind, and presents to them a fuller picture of wherever they find interest. Through reading and experiencing, one's wisdom grows. With natural ability and wisdom growing, fame and fortune pursued by so many people will only be within easy reach eventually.
    For the world to be better, human race greater, and each individual fuller, reading can never be attached a greater importance.
【闪光词汇】
harvest fame and fortune收获声誉和财富
a journey of self-discovery 自我发现之旅
liberate and inspire people's mind 解放并启发人的思维
within easy reach eventually 最终很容易得到

MODEL TEST FIVE答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

Generation Gap

    Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. / The young are better educated./ They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom. / They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. / Every new generation is different from the one that preceded it. / The old always assume that they know best for the simple reason / that they have been around a bit longer. / They don't like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened./ And this is precisely what the young are doing.
【闪光词汇】

dependent adj.依靠的,依赖的
preceded v.在……之前发生或出现  
question v.质疑
threaten v.威胁
values n.价值观  
precisely adv.恰好地

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

Suggestopedia

    Good morning, everyone. As a language learner, there are so many approaches to learn a foreign language. In today's lecture, we will talk about an excellent way to learn a language, which is called suggesttopedia.
    The term “suggestopedia,” derived from suggestion and pedagogy, is often used loosely to refer to similar accelerated learning approaches. (1)So it is often claimed that it can teach languages approximately three times as quickly as conventional methods.
    (2)Some of the key elements of suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment, a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods. And it adopts a carefully structured approach, using four main stages as follows. (3)The first stage is presentation. In this stage, students are helped to relax and move into a positive frame of mind, with the feeling that the learning is going to be easy and fun. The second stage is called “Active Concert”. This involves the active presentation of the material to be learnt. For example, in a foreign language course, there might be the dramatic reading of a piece of text accompanied by classical music. The third stage is passive review. In this section, the students are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music, with the text being read very quietly in the background.The music is specially selected to bring the students into the optimum mental state for the effortless acquisition of the material. (4)The last stage is practice. A range of games and puzzles will be used to review and consolidate the learning.
    Then what should be paid attention to?
    The first aspect is the music. The music should have slow tempo, regular patterns, (5)voices and instruments should not stand out against the orchestra, because they are likely to distract the students. Ideally, the orchestra must have a neutral color—that is why the best choice is string orchestras. That is to say, the intonation and rhythm need to be coordinated with a musical background which will help to induce a relaxed attitude.
    The second aspect is the teacher. The teacher in a suggestopedic course not only radiates effective suggestive stimulation, but also coordinates environmental suggestive stimulation in a positive way for students to learn. What should a teacher do? (6)Firstly, they should cover a huge bulk of learning materials in class. Secondly, they can structure the materials in the suggestopedic way, which means they have to put the materials in golden proportion. (7)Thirdly, they should be highly prestigious,reliable and credible. Lastly, teachers usually act as authority and security in this learning method.They should be confident and trustworthy to their students and afford a cheerful classroom atmosphere. (8)The third aspect that we should pay attention to is the activities. (9)The activities consist of acting out portions of the text, singing specially prepared songs and playing games, telling stories, carrying on short conversations and psycho-dramas.
    It is true that if we can use some of the suggestopedic methods in learning a foreign language, it will greatly accelerate our students' progress. (10)Certain elements of the approach can be taken and incorporated into the more comprehensive approach to language teaching widely in evidence today.
【精解精析】
1.three times
【定位】So it is often claimed that it can teach languages approximately three times as quickly as conventional methods.(第二段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,相比较传统语言教学方式,它可以快大约三倍。此处缺少数词。故填入three times。
2.various methods
【定位】Some of the key elements of suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment, a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods.(第三段第一句) 
【解析】根据定位句可知,启示教学法主要包含丰富的感官学习环境,积极的成功期望以及多样的方式。此处缺少第三项。故填入 various methods。
3.presentation
【定位】The first stage is presentation.(第三段第三句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,第一阶段为展示。故填入presentation。
4.practice
【定位】The last stage is practice.(第三段倒数第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,最后一个阶段是实践。故填入 practice。
5.focused
【定位】...voices and instruments should not stand out against the orchestra, because they are likely to distract the students.(第五段第二句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,旋律和乐器不应脱离整个管弦乐队,这样可能会使学生分心。所以应该协调起来,这样学生可以集中注意力。故填入focused。
6.learning materials
【定位】Firstly, they should cover a huge bulk of learning materials in class.(第六段第四句) 
【解析】根据定位句可知,老师应该在课堂上提供大量的学习资料。故填入learning materials。
7.prestigious
【定位】Thirdly, they should be highly prestigious, reliable and credible.(第六段第六句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,老师们应该有高度的威望,并可以依靠。故填入prestigious。
8.Activities  
【定位】The third aspect that we should pay attention to is the activities.(第六段第九句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,最后一方面需要注意的是开展的活动。根据后文叙述,活动应包括表演,唱歌,游戏,讲故事等。此处应填概括的标题项。故填入 Activities。注意首字母要大写。
9.short conversations
【定位】The activities consist of acting out portions of the text, singing specially prepared songs and playing games, telling stories, carrying on short conversations and psycho-dramas.(第六段最后一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,活动应包括课本以外的表演,演唱特别准备过的歌,玩游戏,讲故事,进行简短的对话及心理情景剧。此处缺少短对话。故填入 short conversations。
10.comprehensively
【定位】Certain elements of the approach can be taken and incorporated into the more comprehensive approach to language teaching widely in evidence today.(最后一段最后一句)
【解析】根据定位句可知,一些特定的教学方式内容可以被融入今天所广泛使用的语言教学方式里。所以这些特定的教学方式可以被广泛地应用。故填入comprehensively。
【闪光词汇】

Suggestopedia n.启示性教学法
orchestra n.管弦乐队  
distract v.使分心,使混乱  
intonation n.声调,语音的抑扬
rhythm n.韵脚,韵文  
credible adj.可信的,可靠的
psycho-dramas n.心理情景剧

SECTION B
Conversation One
【听力原文】
W: Good morning, Neal.
M: Good morning, Denise.
W: You are an exercise physiologist by training, right?
M: Right.
W: What do you think are the reasons we are gaining weight in office?
M: Well, there are probably multiple variables that are causing this whole phenomenon. Eh, (1)inactivity, obviously is the reason.
W: Why are we inactive?
M: Over the last ten to twenty years, the faster and the more technology moves, the less we do. Where you used to get up, write a message and go see your colleague all the way across the office, now you spend 30 seconds writing an e-mail zip; It's gone. You are onto the next thing.
W: OK. So what things can people do before or after work?
M: You know, if you commute uh, the New York City, (2)take the bus or the subway, get off the stop earlier before wherever you are supposed to get off. That gives you a few extra blocks that you can walk. Eh, instead of, if you are up on the 15th floor, I am not gonna recommend that you take the stairs for 15 flights. But you can take the elevator to the 12th floor and walk up 3 flights.
W: (3)I've seen people who actually have been doing that way, who use the stairs all the time. It makes a huge, huge difference.
M: Absolutely. It's just a matter of getting your 2 minutes here and there. It all adds up.
W: And what should people do at lunchtime? What about lunch?
M: If you are moving less, you really require less energy. And you require less calories if you will. (4)So eat a little lighter, drink non-caloric fluids like water or even diet soda if you are a soda drinker. And let that help you fill up.
W: Right. What about trying to exercise at our desk? We are always seeing these things about finger exercises.
M: Over the years, there have been a lot of workout programs that you see in all the books and magazines. Eh, (5)the bottom line is a lot of people are not comfortable exercising at their desks as their manager might be watching.
W: So, we're  gonna tend to lose out or miss out on any activity we could do at our desk.
1.According to the conversation, what might be the obvious reason for gaining weight in workplace?
2.Which of the following is NOT mentioned to do before or after work?
3.How does the woman think of the exercise suggested by the man?
4.What's the man's suggestion on lunch?
5.How does the man think of office exercises?
【精解精析】
1.B【解析】题目问:根据对话,什么是办公室职员发胖最显著的原因?由句(1)可知,男士说,办公室职员久坐而不活动是发胖的主要原因。故选B。
2.A【解析】题目问:哪项不是对话中提到的上下班时间可以做的事?由句(2)可知,男士说在通勤时可以提前下车,走几个街区,少乘几层电梯,走楼梯,并没有提到骑车上班,故选A。
3.C【解析】题目问:女士对男士建议的锻炼怎么看?由句(3)可知,女士说我见到有人这样做,一直走楼梯,这会带来非常大、非常大的变化。由此可以看出,女士认为,这种锻炼方法很有用,故选C。
4.D【解析】题目问:男士对于午餐有什么建议?由句(4)可知,男士建议说“吃低热量食品,喝低热量饮料或无糖汽水”。可见男士倡导的是健康饮食,故选D。
5.D【解析】题目问:男士对办公室锻炼有什么看法?由句(5)可知,男士说本质在于很多人觉得在办公桌旁锻炼不舒服,因为经理可能会看到。故选D。
【闪光词汇】

multiple adj.多样化的
commute v.通勤,往来
elevator n.电梯
calory n.卡路里
workout n.锻炼,试验

Conversation Two
【听力原文】
M: Christmas is coming, and the stores are going to try to keep you spending. So here to expose a few tricks is Kelly Grant. She's a senior consumer reporter for SmartMoney.com.Thanks for being with us.
W: Hi!
M: I've fallen for a lot of these, so help us now. First one, gifts with purchase.
W: Studies have shown that consumers are after-think of the gift with purchase, not just as you are spending extra money for something that you might not ever want, but we also quit with the discount. So to avoid this trick, (6)you need to make sure that you're really sure the gift is just on your list and you're still spending in budget.
M: There are a lot of psychological tricks here. For example, the purchase limits.
W: That's exactly the trick. Studies have shown that (7)if there's a limit in pleasure more like a little,the higher the limit, the more likely you're to buy.
M: How can you ignore those e-mails that you keep getting about this sale and that sale?
W: Don't open your e-mail. Close your eyes. That's really the best advice. (8)I mean the stores really know what we're hard-wired to think about, that is the scarcity, when you're looking through your e-mails, try to avoid opening any of those ones, unless you're going to make a purchase from that store anyway, otherwise just delete it on red.
M: Got it. You know, it's really a number's game. Because a lot of times when you're looking at these different deals, it's like: save 30%, save 50%. But are you really saving that much money when you're looking at your purchase?
W: That's what their purpose is for. Whatever you see, first, you're more likely to become attached to the deal. And the price in comparison is not going to look such a big deal. The advertising works in such a tricky way that (9)you might think you're getting that much of a better price, because the savings are significant.
M: Yeah, I got it. And shop now, save later. Is that a trick?
W: Well. You see a lot of these, especially with closing stores at this time of year and this is a way that consumers tried to think they are going to game a system, because they are going to buy something a little bit today and get today's sale, and they are going to get coupons to come back in two weeks and buy a little bit more than even with better prices. (10)So for this one, you know somebody's sales are right there now, just try to focus on what deals they are currently and they are not trying to play games.
M: So I think the key words here are just “stay focused”. You know you have a list, you have your budget.
W: Exactly. Make that list and check it twice.
M: Thanks Kelly for helping us adults out in knowing what the shopping is really for.
W: It's my pleasure.
6.When is gift with purchase acceptable according to Kelly Grant?
7.Which of the following purchase limits would most attract people to buy?
8.Which of the following in people's psychology does the trick of sales e-mails take advantage of?
9.Why do the stores emphasize the savings in the deals?
10.Which of the following statements is INCORRECT according to the interview?
【精解精析】
6.C【解析】题目问:根据凯莉的话,什么时候购买礼物合适?由句(6)可知,当你十分确定它在你的购物清单里,并在预算范围之内时。故选C。
7.D【解析】题目问:以下哪一项购物限令最能吸引人们购买?由句(7)可知,限制越高,人们更倾向于购买。故选D。
8.B【解析】题目问:邮件销售骗局是利用了人们的哪一种心理?由句(8)可知,邮件销售利用了我们的定性思维,即如果我们不去买,就没了。故选B。
9.B【解析】题目问:为什么商店要强调还价?由句(9)可知,这样可以让你觉得你以一个不错的价格买到了它。从而忽视了先前的高价。故选B。
10.C【解析】题目问:根据采访,哪一项叙述是不对的?由句(10)可知,凯莉说一些人只关注当前的购物活动而匆匆购买,而不愿三思。所以她不提倡草率消费。故选C。
【闪光词汇】

expose v.揭露     
trick n.骗局      
scarcity n.稀缺,不足  
coupon n.优惠券  
delete v.删除  
game v.打赌

PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】C
【译文】我打算向我们的委员会提议任命吉姆为主席,我希望你同意我的提议。
【解析】 本题考查虚拟语气。本句中move的含义比较特殊,意为“提议”,属于“熟词僻义”的情况,其引导的宾语从句应使用虚拟语气,在一般现在时的情况下即为“(should+)动词原形”结构。故选C。有类似用法的词还有suggest, propose, recommend等。
12.【答案】A
【译文】你应该开始写文献综述了。
【解析】本题考查固定句式。it's (high) time后接从句时,从句谓语动词要用过去式或should+动词原形,should不可省略,故选A。
13.【答案】B
【译文】小时候,我们家乡的特征给我留下了深刻的印象,对日后指导我事业上的一些理念产生了深远的影响。
【解析】本题考查定语从句。本句谓语动词是had,两个逗号之间的部分是主语的定语,可以看作是省略了which的定语从句;根据impress sth. on/upon sb.“使某人铭记某事”这一常用搭配,主语与impress之间构成动宾关系,故应用过去分词,故选B。
14.【答案】B
【译文】丝绸、印刷术、造纸术、指南针和火药都起源于中国,它们的传入对西方有深远的影响。
【解析】本题考查物主代词。空格后边是名词,故可以推断出应该填入物主代词。由题干可知,此处传入的是丝绸、 印刷术、造纸术、指南针和火药,故物主代词应用第三人称复数形式,故选B。
15.【答案】B
【译文】谈论那个是没用的,我太清楚它的事实了。
【解析】本题考查非限制性定语从句。如将选项C和D放入句中,则前面需加连词才能使句子结构完整,而此处并无连词,故排除;A项放入句中就构成特殊疑问句,那么句末要用问号,而此句句末为句号,而且即使句末是问号,前后两个句子之间仍需要连接词,所以排除A。故选B,为“名词+ of which”引导的特殊的非限制性定语从句。
16.【答案】C
【译文】下列哪个句子含有主语从句?
【解析】本题考查句子成分。选项C中句首的it是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的主语从句,意思为“她已经通过了考试”,故选C。选项A中that引导的是同位语从句,对a fact的内容 进行补充说明,意思为“他已经尽全力了”;选项B中that引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词the best film,意思为“我所看过的”;选项D是强调句型,强调主语Jack,句意为“是杰克会照顾那位老人”。
17.【答案】D
【译文】迪丽雅昨天不太舒服;否则她就会去送她的同学了。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。原句是一个含蓄虚拟条件句,前半句是陈述语气,后半句中的副词otherwise含蓄地表示了与事实相反的条件,相当于if引导的虚拟条件句“if Delia had felt well yesterday”,表示与过去的事实相反,因此后半句中的谓语动词要用would have done的形式,故选D。 选项A并非虚拟语气,故排除;选项B和C表示的是与现在的事实相反,与原句的意思不 符,故排除。
18.【答案】C
【译文】太阳东升西落,所以看似太阳在绕着地球转。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。as if/as though引导方式状语从句或表语从句时,若说话人认为从句所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时,从句要使用虚拟语气:如果从句表示与现在事实相反,从句谓语动词用一般过去时;如果从句表示与过去事实相反,从句谓语动词用过去完成时; 如果从句表示将来的可能性不大,从句谓语动词用would/might/could +动词原形。由前半句的时态可知后半句表示的是与现在的事实相反,故选C。选项A是虚拟语气,但as if 引导的从句使用虚拟语气时不用should do的形式,故排除;选项B和D并非虚拟语气,故排除。
19.【答案】D
【译文】教育就是在你忘记学到的一切东西之后所剩下的东西。
【解析】本题考查定语从句连词。根据句意可知,本题需要选的是定语从句的连词。当先行词是all, little, few, much, anything, everything, nothing等词,且在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语等成分时, 只能用that引导该定语从句。原句的先行词是all,在定语从句中作主语。选项A不能引导定语从句;选项B与the thing搭配不当,应该是all the things。故选D。
20.【答案】D
【译文】下列哪个句子不含定语从句?
【解析】本题考查句子成分。选项D的句子中,it是形式主语,when引导的从句为真正主语,意为“他什么时候回来”,该从句为主语从句。选项A中whose引导的定语从句修饰先行词the book,意为“颜色是红色的书”;选项B中as引导的定语从句修饰整个主句Linda is a famous writer,意为“正如你所知道的”;选项C中which引导的从句为非限制性定语从句,修饰整个主句John was ill,意为“这令我非常不安”。故选D。
21.【答案】C
【译文】当他打算预订的时候,他发现由于某个会议,那家想订的旅馆已经客满了。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。complaint意为“抱怨”,claim意为“索赔”,decision意为“决定”;reservation意为“预订”, 此处指预订房间,故选C。
22.【答案】B
【译文】专家说散步是保持健康的最佳方法之一。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。这几个动词都有“保持”之意,但是空格后为形容词healthy,作表语,故空格内必须填入一个具有系动词用法的词,只有stay合要求。故选B。
23.【答案】D
【译文】一些青少人有着普遍仇视社会的情绪,因为尽管他们在生理上已经成熟,但是社会却拒绝赋予他们成人的权利和特权。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。deprive一般用于固定搭配deprive sb.of sth.; restrict用于restrict sb.to sth.; reject不可接双宾语结构;只有deny既可以接双宾语,又符合句意“拒绝给予某人某物”。故选D。
24.【答案】D
【译文】自1957年10月苏联发射第一颗人造卫星起,太空时代就开始了。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格中要求填入一个不及物动词,故排除及物动词initiate; originate意为“来自”,后面一般跟介词from; embark意为“着手,从事”,与句意不符;commence意为“开始”,用在此处合适。故选D。
25.【答案】A
【译文】新来的秘书写了一篇非常简明扼要的报告,只有几页纸长,但是包括了所有的细节。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。根据语境,此处应填入一个表示“简洁的,简明的”之意的形容词,只有concise最合适。clear意为“清晰的”;precise意为“精确的”,elaborate意为“详细阐述的”。故选A。
26.【答案】D
【译文】人们经常用热情好客、慷慨大方和和蔼可亲来形容中国人。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。humble意为“谦逊的”;modest意为“谦虚的”;admirable意为“令人钦佩的”; pleasant and friendly意为“友善的”。根据语境,amiable意为“和蔼可亲的”,故选D。
27.【答案】B
【译文】现在,被告因为他的错误行为任法官摆布。
【解析】本题考查短语理解。at hand意为“即将到来”;under the control of意为“在……的掌控下”;in name of意为“以……的名义”;没有beyond the mercy of的表述。根据语境,at the mercy of意为“任……摆布”, 故选B。
28.【答案】C
【译文】政客们最为珍视的莫过于其政党的利益。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。miss意为“想念”;remember意为“记住”;favor意为“喜爱,珍爱”,learn意为“学习”。根据语境,cherish意为“珍视”,故选C。
29.【答案】A
【译文】现代化发展的过程可以通过人民的生活水平来衡量。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。estimated意为“估计”;thought意为“想”;considered意为“考虑到”;described意为“描述”。根据语境,measured意为“衡量”,故选A。
30.【答案】B
【译文】科学家们已经知道如何利用无穷尽的太阳能。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。harness意为“治理;驾驭;利用”,在本句中意为“利用”,utilize意为“利用,运用”,两者意思相同,故B为答案。accomplish意为“完成;实现”;balance意为“使平衡;结算”; circulate意为“使循环;使流通”。故选B。

PART IVCLOZE
【参考译文】
    今天的美国人比起过去有更多不同的饮食习惯。有更广泛的食物可供选择。
    他们对营养有更广阔的知识储备,所以他们比以往任何时候购买更多的新鲜水果和蔬菜。与此同时,美国人购买糖果、零食和苏打水的数量有所增加。
    想要研究人们消费的食物数量和种类是很容易的事。美国农业部(USDA)和食品工业——种植者、加工、营销和餐馆,编制销售统计,并保持准确的记录。红肉,这曾经是吃饭最受欢迎的选择,不再是美国人的最爱,相反,鸡、火鸡、鱼已经变得越来越受欢迎。这些食品的销售在最近几年有了很大的提高。这可能是对进食含有胆固醇偏高,或动物脂肪的食物的危害性的认识的结果。医生认为,胆固醇会对人体健康构成威胁。
    据最近的一项调查,美国人也改变自己的饮食模式,以满足不同场合的需要。他们有一定的思想关于哪些食物会增加他们的运动能力,帮助他们减轻体重,让他们在商务会议保持思维敏捷,或者吃蔬菜,补充碳水合物,使他们有力量去做体力活动,如体育。成年人选择富含纤维的食物,如为商务会议选择面包和谷类食品做早餐和沙拉做午餐。但是,对于浪漫的晚餐,美国人选择虾和龙虾。虽然许多这些想法都是基于营养成分,有些则不是。美国人的营养意识,和他们不断变化的口味和需求一起,导致他们消费了各种各样的食品——为健康,为有趣,或者只是为了口感好。
【精解精析】
31.B【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为介词of,因此空格处应选名词或动名词。结合句意“他们对营养有了更广泛的认识,因此他们购买的新鲜水果和蔬菜比以前更多了”,B项最适合;nutrient作为干扰项,表示“营养物”,不符合题意。故选B。
32.J【解析】本题考查名词。该空格后为并列连词and,因此空格处应选和sweets,sodas并列的表示食品的名词。结合选项,J项snacks最适合,而F项snakes为干扰项,它与snacks是形近词,snakes意为“蛇;阴险的人”,不符合题意。故选J。
33.E【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在分句缺少谓语,空格前为名词restaurateurs,之后为名词短语sales statistics,因此空格处应选及物动词原形。结合句意“美国农业部和食品行业…… 销售统计并保存精确记录”和选项,E项compile最适合,A项alter也可作及物动词且为原形,但它表示“改变”,与句意不符。故选E。
34.M【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为形容词American,再由之前的不定冠词an可知,空格处应选单数名词。结合句意“红肉曾经是最受欢迎的用餐选择,但现在已不再是美国人的 ”以及popular一词可知,M项favorite最适合,此处用作名词,意为“最喜爱的食物”。故选M。
35.G【解析】本题考查动词。该空格所在从句缺少谓语,空格前为关系代词which,之后为名词短语high levels of...,因此空格处应选单数第三人称形式的动词。结合句意“这很可能是因为人们意识到了食用高胆固醇或动物脂肪的食物的危险”和选项。故选G。
36.L【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为动词名词eating,再由之前的形容词性物主代词their可知,空格处应选名词。结合句意“美国人还改变了他们的饮食来满足不同场合的需求”和选项。故选L。
37.O【解析】本题考查形容词。该空格前为动宾结构make them,由动词make的用法可知,空格处应选形容词、动词原形或名词。结合句意“他们知道哪些食物会增强自己的运动能力……使自己在商务会谈中……”和选项,alert最适合,A项alter为干扰项,二者为形近词,但alter表示“改变”,与句意不符,故排除。故选O。
38.H【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为介词in,因此空格处应选名词。此处句意为“成人选择富含……的食物,如早餐选择面包和谷物”,根据常识可判断,面包和谷物显然纤维含量丰富,故选H。
39.D【解析】本题考查名词。该空格前为所有格形式Americans’,之后为介词of,因此空格处应选名词。结合句意“由于美国人对营养的……,口味和需求的变化导致他们消费大量不同的食物”和选项,D项awareness最适合。consciousness也常与介词of连用,但不表“意识;知觉”之意,不符合题意,故排除N。故选D。
40.K【解析】本题考查连词。由上题可知此处是作伴随状语,表示美国人消费大量不同的食物的原因,空格处应填一个连词或者非谓语动词,纵观选项发现,K项along与with连用为固定搭配,表示“连同……一起”,符合题意,而C项companied应与by搭配才能表示“伴随着,陪伴着”的意思,不符合此处语法要求。故选K。
PART V READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE
【参考译文】
    与希尼在一起像是同时处于两个人之中。一方面,他是贵族、政治家,有点厉害:那不朽的头衔可以让他愉快地跻身于谢尔登剧院牛津古典帝王的行列。另一方面,他步履蹒跚的步态、不羁的头发和根深蒂固的欢乐,他仍然是德里公司的农民的儿子。
    大约20年前是我第一次见到他,当时我为哈珀斯和女王《看见事情》的出版采访他。他谈及回复崇拜者来信的责任感,以及这如何使他妻子变得抓狂——“玛丽总是说‘天哪!’但一个人的道德使命感与其整体现实间的关系是非常复杂的。”“他反映了有时一个诗人需要变得政治性且严肃。”“有时不给予引导并造成麻烦是不道德的,有时默许就是失败的。”他若有所思地说了他的天主教背景——尽管他不再是一个经常去做礼拜的人,但这让他感觉他拥有欢乐的权利。
    采访之前,我一度害怕准备不足而紧张。所以,除了购买所有希尼的诗,我还买了他的作品的A级笔记。当我们结束了谈话,他主动为书题名,令我惊讶的是,在书的底部,他发现了我的笔记。他哄堂大笑。我也笑了。我们打开了最愉快的氛围。
    但是那天晚上,他在英国皇家学会发表了读书分享会,他沉思默想,面色沉重。他展示了泰德·休斯的理念,“诗从最终的痛苦和决然中诞生”,他谈到了“中期勃发”,关于他四岁弟弟的惨死: 
“在门廊我看到了我的父亲在哭泣——”
    我们因为另一位诗人、一位共同的朋友乔治·麦凯布朗又重聚到了一起。我开始着手准备布朗的传记,我写信给希尼问他是否愿意分享他的回忆和想法。他回了一个我会永远珍藏的传真:四页精准、完美地回应,我感觉我的书像用金线缝制了一样。
    然后,去年9月,希尼在斯特林做了读书分享会。他同意我就诗作《七大奇迹》来采访他,他的语句丰富而优雅,无需任何编辑,可直接从谈话录音见诸报端。在他的荣誉晚宴上,他告诉我们,当邻近的农民在他拿到诺贝尔奖返回来看他时,他是如何的激动。 “啊,西莫,”农夫说。 “欢迎回家。祝贺你得奖!”
    在阅读本身,他显得微不足道,但光芒四射。他说他希望“揭竿而起,使诗变得生动,使艺术与人文变得有价值”。
    那么问题来了。斯特林的学生,如羞涩的20多岁的我,问希尼是否有什么有趣的要说,现在他是这么老,却毫不掩饰,并与快乐同在,希尼提到他早年的诗《挖掘》。 “我可能不会有太多需要提前挖掘的了,”他承认,“但我希望有好锄头”。如果出现了更多的话。
【精解精析】
41.B【定位】第一段。
【解析】推理题。第一段讲述诗人Seamus Heaney身上兼具皇帝的高贵威严和农民的乐天、淳朴及不拘小节,但不能就此推断大部分诗人都有双面性格。A“与Seamus Heaney的相处是段难忘的经历”;C“在Seamus Heaney身上能同时看到皇帝和农民的影子”;D“Seamus Heaney是一个对生活乐观的老人”,均符合第一段文意,故排除。故选B。
42.D【定位】第三段。
【解析】细节题。根据第三段,在就诗作《看见事情》采访Seamus Heaney前,“我”因害怕准备不足而紧张,因此查阅并制作了小纸条以提示自己,诗人无意中发现纸条后放声大笑。D表述准确,故为答案。根据第二段,Harpers & Queen是“我”为之采访写稿的一本杂志,故排除A;Seamus Heaney的妻子对于他崇拜者的来信表示抓狂恼火,故排除B;根据第二段中间部分可知,诗人在某些时候应具有政治性,在公众问题面前沉默是一种失败,但无法推断C。故选D。
【闪光词汇】

formidable adj.令人敬畏的       
ethical adj.伦理的;道德的
embark v.上船;装船
stitch  v.缝补
hoe  v.用锄头锄地

【难句解析】
① He spoke about the duty he felt to respond to letters from admirers, and of how this maddened his wife “Marie always says, ‘For God's sake!’ but the relationship between one's ethical commands and one's whole reality is very complex.”
【解析】本句为复合句,主干结构为“He spoke about the duty...and of how this maddened his wife”;破折号后面是补充说明,可视作插入成分。“he felt to respond to letters from admirers”是定语从句,修饰先行词duty;引号中的句子是并列句,but连接了前后两个分句。
② He allowed me to interview him for “Seven Wonders”,speaking in rich, graceful sentences that made their way unedited from the recorder to the page.
【解析】本句为复合句,主干结构为“He allowed me to interview him for ‘Seven Wonders’”。speaking in rich, graceful sentences...是动词的现在分词作伴随状语,that引导定语从句,修饰先行词sentences。
PASSAGE TWO
【参考译文】
    鉴于在画面前简短的几眼,大多数人认为他们还没有时间看出任何东西。问他们是否看到了一个动物,他们认为自己只是在做徒劳的猜测。然而,这些猜测是正确的几率往往比他们错误的几率高。这是因为即使没有足够的时间对任何认知做反应,大脑仍可以立即进行视觉处理。神经科学家正是从这种最简单的系统上的试验试图了解人们如何识别物体。
    这就是赛尔博士计算机系统的目的。他的项目无外乎是为了反向编程大脑的相关部分。这部分是腹侧视觉通路。解剖表明,它分为众多领域。在猴子身上的实验,研究人员记录了在这些领域里,什么激发了神经细胞,以及给它如何工作的强烈暗示。
    该通路是分层次的。首先,信号从视网膜流向最基本处理区域;这一区域的细胞激发起下一区域的其他细胞等。那些在第一区域的细胞是爱挑剔的。他们在特定方向的边缘作出反应。然而,通过组合它们的信号,细胞在第二区域可以以任何趋向在任何拐角作出响应。这样一来,系统建立起来。在最后区域的细胞能够识别一般的东西,也包括动物在内。
    塞尔博士认为他的计算机的处理单元类似于神经细胞,他把它们组织到特定地方,就像在现实的大脑中一样。然后,他让该机器以和婴儿同样的学习方式进行学习。首先,他模拟了早期开发神经细胞的物质。在这一阶段的婴儿,大脑指挥神经细胞应对视觉特征,就像其在现实世界中普通的特征一样。这就是为何那些喂养时只让它们看到垂直线条的小猫,和另外一些仅处于水平线条环境之中的小猫的大脑看起来不一样的原因。当他展示大量图像的时候,赛尔博士的处理器以类似的方式开发敏感性。这一阶段完成后,他指挥电脑什么时候能看到动物,什么时候没有。
    其结果是有一个紧密地模仿腹侧视觉通路的模型。在每个区域的处理单元都对同一组的特征敏感,就像大脑中类似区域的神经细胞连接在一起。这种人工识别系统正确区分哪些照片包含动物,哪些没有的几率是82%;赛尔博士的学生的正确率有80%。而且,他的计算机和他的志愿者倾向于忽视同样的图像,在其两侧转动照片以使得在大致相同的数量中较差的照片也能识别出来。
【精解精析】
43.B【定位】That is because the brain can carry out immediate visual processing even when it does not have time for any cognitive back-chatter.(第一段第四句)
【解析】语义题。文章一开始举例提到,很多人在看了几眼某张图片时,往往认为自己没有时间看清楚任何东西,但是却经常能够猜对图片的内容。紧接着下一句解释了这种现象的原因,就是大脑可以在没有任何认知反应的情况下对视觉信息进行加工处理。根据上下文,cognitive back-chatter应该指的是对某些外部刺激的反应,故选B。
44.B【定位】首段末尾、第二段和第三段。
【解析】细节题。文章首段末尾提到要了解人是如何识别物体的就要研究大脑的某个系统;第二段段首说这就是塞尔博士的项目的研究目的;第二句和第三句接着解释其研究项目,同时提到腹侧视觉通路就是人大脑中和识别物体有关的那个部分。第三段首句说腹侧视觉通路是hierarchical 的,故A不正确;第三句提到“They react to edges or bars in particular orientations”,故C不正确;选项D原文未提及,故选B。
45.C【定位】Dr. Serre's processor developed sensitivities in a similar fashion when he showed it lots of photographs.(第四段倒数第二句)
【解析】细节题。第四段倒数第二句提到塞尔博士的处理器在面对许多图片时以相同的方式培养出了敏感性,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

futile adj.无效的,无用的;无希望的
ventral adj.腹侧的
anatomy n.解剖
retina n.视网膜

【难句解析】
That is why kittens raised so that they see only vertical lines have brains that look different from those raised in an environment with purely horizontal ones.
【解析】句子的主干是“That is why kittens have brains”,其中why引导的是表语从句,这个表语从句比较复杂,主干为“why kittens have brains”,而“raised so that they see only vertical lines”是过去分词短语,充当kittens的后置定语,该过去分词短语中“so that they see only vertical lines”为目的状语;“that look different from those raised in an environment with purely horizontal ones”为that 引导的定语从句,修饰先行词:brains,该定语从句中“raised in an environment with purely horizontal ones”为过去分词短语,充当不定代词;those的后置定语。
PASSAGE THREE
【参考译文】
    如果你发现很难喜欢上从俄克拉何马州而来的参议员詹姆斯·英霍夫,他因把气候变化称为“美国人民犯下的最伟大的骗局”而赫赫有名。——记住这一点:他曾经也年轻过。这是有关紧要的,因为英霍夫当时不只是年轻了很多,也是很明智的,至少在环境方面。也就是说,根据从西班牙毕尔巴鄂的教师培训学院一项研究表明,这是对的,不只是对于这位从俄克拉何马州而来的绅士,而且对于我们所有的人。
    教育工作者和与小孩一起工作的人知道他们是天生的无政府主义者,但孩子们也生活在一个充满规则的世界。其中的一些规则由教化所得,如在课堂上举手,不要打断别人;有的似乎更先天——不要打其他孩子,不要伤害动物。一则新闻报道说,心理学家们喜欢设想告知一个上幼儿园的孩子其老师已经取消课上不准吃零食的规则和告知同一个孩子其老师已经取消不准打人的规则之间的区别。第一种情况下,孩子会立马去抢最近的饼干。而第二种情况,孩子通常会犹豫,不愿打,甚至可以说老师错了。
    为了测试生物是在哪一生长阶段形成这种不伤害观,培训学院研究员何塞·多明戈·弗得罗汇集了来自当地公立学校,年龄在4—7岁的118个男孩和女孩。他从最基础的开始,给他们看两组图,每组四张。各为一只狗、一棵树、一只鸟和一朵花;以及太阳、云、汽车和摩托车,并问他们哪些是活的,哪些不是。事实证明,最小的孩子经常会从生物类别里排除树,但会把汽车或摩托车包括进去。
    弗得罗接着让他们对两种情况作出反应。第一种情况,他给他们展现了一套社会规则(反对抠鼻子和粗俗饮食规则)和一组人际交往规则(不抢其他孩子的玩具,或伤害其他孩子)。第二种情况,他们被给了相同的社会规则和一套环境规则(不踩花,不要用小刀在树上刻出你的名字)。在这两种情况下,他们被要求选择更糟糕的那个规则去打破。在这两种情况下,社会规则首先就被打破了。
    这也许并不奇怪,孩子们直观地了解了为什么伤害其他孩子是一个糟糕的冒犯而不是表现的不礼貌。即使在成长早期,孩子的同情心也会日益强烈,他们明白自己被打或玩具被抢是什么感觉。但孩子不是花或树,尽管他们表现出对它们相同的关心,而这也包括没有意识到植物的生命是生命的所有的孩子。
    尽管该研究在科学上不够严谨。可能孩子们没有不在乎花,并且只是效仿他们所学到或观察到的规则。但他们也被教导了好的礼仪规则。 弗得罗并不关心他们是否全然明白对与错,而是他们了解的度,哪件事相对而言更对,哪一件更不对。而就这一标准而言,天性占了上风。
    在你从一个5岁学前孩童到一位55岁的政策制定者的旅程中还有很多成长空间,而且我们当中更善良的天使们并不都能活到那个岁数。但是,它激励着我们与它共同进步。而且尽可能久的坚持己见也是值得的。
【精解精析】
46.D【定位】第一段。
【解析】细节题。作者在第一段以参议员詹姆斯·英霍夫关于环境变化“是对美国人民的最大骗局”的著名论断为例,指出如果在其儿童时期,他会在环境问题上更明智,而这也是西班牙某教师培训学院的一项实验结果。D表述准确,故选D。
47.A【定位】第三段、第四段。
【解析】细节题。根据第三、四段,西班牙某教师培训学院的弗得罗做了一项研究,从当地小学召集了代表性的118位四到七岁的孩子,先给他们展示两组照片,其后又让他们面对两种情境作出反应。根据第三段,在第一个试验中,孩子们将狗、汽车、摩托车列入有生命物体的类别,而排除了树,可推知他们将可移动性作为该项的评价标准,故选A。
48.C【定位】最后一段。
【解析】推理题。根据最后一段,从孩童到55岁的政策制定者的旅程中有很多成长空间,而且我们当中更善良的天使们并不都能活到那个岁数,此句为部分否定,无法就此推断“好人不长命、 恶人却遗臭万年”,故选C。
【闪光词汇】

hoax n.骗局;恶作剧
perpetrate v.犯(罪);做(错事) 
innate  adj.天生的;内在的
posit v.假定;设想
suspend v.暂停;中止
intuitively adv.直觉地;直观地
offense n.冒犯
don't give a hoot 一点也不在乎

【难句解析】
①As reported in a story, psychologists like to posit the difference between telling a kindergartener that the teacher has suspended the rule against eating snacks in class and telling the same child that the teacher has suspended the no-hitting rule.
【解析】本句为复合句。主干结构为“psychologists like to posit the difference between...and...”。“as reported in a story”为as引导的定语从句。主句中还内嵌了两个that引导的宾语从句。
② There's a whole lot of developmental ground covered between the time you're a five-year-old preschooler and a 55-year-old policymaker, and our better angels don't always survive the trip.
【解析】本句为复合句。第一个分句的主干为“There's...developmental ground covered between the time...and...”;第二个分句的主干为“our better angels don't always survive the trip”。第一个分句内嵌了定语从句“you're a five-year-old...”,修饰先行词time,用作时间状语的关系副词when通常不能省略, 但有一种特殊情况,即用于day,year,time等少数几个词后时可以省略(也可换成that)。
PASSAGE FOUR
【参考译文】
    公共演讲使大多数人感到畏惧。害怕丢脸是最大的恐惧,其次是害怕在众人面前露面且担心不能吸引听众。女人尤其讨厌演讲,因为她们从小就感受到压力,要求她们注意自己在各种场合下的形象。
    大多人都有种种数不清的不安全感。而这(公开演讲)看来就像是一种激发不安全因素的场合—如果你过去一直承受着追求完美的压力,那么在大庭广众之中失败会使你感到恐惧。
性格外向的人在这种严酷的考验下所感受到的恐惧要小些,但这并不意味着他们一定会做得更好。一些很害羞的人成功地展示了自己的风采。当我见到英国喜剧演员朱利安·克莱利时,他显得害羞而谨慎,然而他的电视表演却无可挑剔。
    事实上,性格并不能最准确地预测出一个人能否做好公共演讲。不管你在现实生活中是什么样子的,成功的秘诀似乎就是表现你自己。
    像真正的演员那样表演往往是行不通的,这就像是念别人的台词而不是说出你自己的话一样。政治家可以通过精心排练书面发言稿来限制可能造成的损害,然而听众心里始终会隐隐约约地觉得你所说的话可能是不真实的。
    同样地,许多美国学者令人难以置信的出色演讲都显得极不自然。听完演讲出门时你可能会买他们的书,但是很快,你会有一种莫名奇妙的受骗的感觉,就像吃完快餐食品后的感觉一样。
斯宾沙伯爵在他妹妹戴安娜王妃的葬礼上的演说表明,准备充分而又表现自然是可能的。然而,尽管如此,演讲稿很少能真正起作用,它只是用来为大多数演讲者服务而已。
    但是,毫无准备同样行不通。如果你演讲时让人觉得好像是在自家的厨房里讲话,那就过于真实了,完全你明白同听众进行交流的必要性。
    我还记得曾去听英国精神病学家罗纳德·戴维·兰恩做公开演讲时的情景。他表现得像个极其古怪的人一样在信口胡说。尽管他讲的是有关精神病的话题,写的文章的也是关于精神病的,但他看起来就像是在向人们演示而不是在解释什么是精神病。
    演讲时的最佳心理状态是一种无自我意识的自我意识状态,从而获得表现自然的错觉。研究显示,这种被心理学家称之为“流畅”的状态是最令人满意的。
【精解精析】
49.B【定位】第五段、第六段。
【解析】细节题。第五段说,政客们会精心准备演讲稿,但总让听众有一种内容不真实的感觉;第六段说,许多美国学者出色的演讲也极不自然。可见作者不赞同B“完美的演讲稿对给观众留下好印象是必须的。”故选B。
50.D【定位】第三段、第四段。
【解析】推理题。根据personality一词查找到第三、四段。第三段提到外向型性格的人和害羞的人,第四段开头就说,性格并非是表明能否成功演说的最好标志。换言之,还有别的因素比性格更能决定一个人是否可以演讲成功。故选D。
【闪光词汇】

cautious adj.谨慎的
scripted  adj.照原稿宣读的
incredibly adv.非常;极其
authentic adj.真的
off the top of one's head信口地,不假思索地
humiliation n.丢脸
insecurity n.不安全
extrovert  n.性格外向的人
rehearse  v.排练
nameless  adj.不可名状的
psychiatrist n.精神科医生
illusion  n.错觉

【难句解析】
The best psychological place from which to speak is an unselfconscious self-consciousness, providing the illusion of being natural.
【解析】句中的 from which to speak 作后置定语,修饰句子主语 place;an unselfconscious self-consciousness。现在分词短语providing the illusion of being natural作状语,表结果。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51.He is a man of moral integrity and uprightness.
【解析】态度题。根据全文,特别是第二段和第八段,Seamus Heaney是一个正直、勇敢、充满道德责任感的诗人。因此答案为He is a man of moral integrity and uprightness。
PASSAGE TWO
52.A research project.
【解析】主旨题。文章重点讲了塞尔博士的一个研究项目,即通过计算机模拟人脑识别视觉信息的过程,因此答案为A research project。
PASSAGE THREE
53.They are inclined to observe some rules without being taught.
【解析】细节题。根据第二段,孩子们生活在一个充满规则的世界里,有些规则是被教会的,有些则更倾向于是孩子与生俱来就能感应的:例如,一个孩子被告知其老师已取消课上不准吃零食和不准打人的两条规则,这个孩子做出了不同的反应。因此答案为They are inclined to observe some rules without being taught。
54.Critical.
【解析】态度题。根据全文,作者充分肯定孩子在环境问题上的意识,认为大人应该保持这种环保意识,而不是随年龄的增长而变得淡漠,可知作者对英霍夫的论断是调侃加批判的态度。因此答案为Critical。
PASSAGE FOUR
55.Public speaking.
【解析】语义题。第二段第一句中的代词them指的是前一分句中的insecurities,而like一词表明this和situation同指,故可推断只有第一段出现的Public speaking符合题意,与situation构成相同的语义关系:公开演讲看来就像是一种激发不安全因素的场合,因此答案为Public speaking。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
本题核心问题是大学生是否应在经济上独立。有人认为大学生应经济独立,因为做兼职可以增加工作经验和社会阅历;反对者则认为没必要为了挣钱而影响学业。要求考生根据自己的想法或实践经历对此进行分析比较,然后选择其中一个观点,给出理由进行论证。
【高分范文】

Should University Students Be Financially Independent?

    Opinions differ on whether undergraduates should be financially independent or not. Some people think it is unnecessary for students to make money in order to gain financial independence, for it will have negative influence on their studies. However, others hold that university students should try to stand on their own feet because part-time jobs will benefit them a lot. As far as I'm concerned, I agree with the latter opinion.
    For my part, there are three reasons that undergraduates should be financially independent. First and foremost, doing a part-time job is an important way to be financially independent. On the one hand, a part-time job can help the student develop various abilities such as communication skills, time management skills and so on. On the other hand, working experience will be a competitive advantage when the undergraduate seek for a job in the future. Besides, when the university students are struggling for their life in the society, they can understand the society better and grow mature in mind. Last but not least, it is also necessary for the undergraduates to share the financial burden of their parents since they are grownups who are supposed to be responsible for their families.
    All in all, the university students should endeavor to achieve financial independence, which will benefit them and their families in turn. The universities and the society should encourage and guide them for their sense of independence.
【闪光词汇】

gain financial independence 取得经济独立
have negative influence on 对……产生负面影响
stand on one's own feet 自力更生
time management时间管理
competitive advantage 竞争优势
share the financial burden 分担经济负担
endeavor to努力做……
in turn反过来
sense of independence 独立意识

 

MODEL TEST SIX答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

Raw Milk


    Some milk drinkers like what they call “real milk”,/ also known as raw milk. / This is milk that has not been sterilized. / In the United States, / health officials warn that drinking raw milk can be dangerous and even deadly. / But the popularity seems to be growing. / Supporters say raw milk tastes better than sterilized milk / though not everyone can taste a difference. / In all of the fifty states but Michigan, / people are permitted to buy raw milk for animals.

PART  II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

Words and Their Stories: Independence Day


    Good morning, everyone. As you know, Independence Day is a huge celebration in the United States. People celebrate by having parades and picnics and usually end the day with fireworks. So what do some of these words mean?
Parade
    (1)Cities and towns, large and small, across the U.S. close their main streets to make way for Independence Day parades. Clean and shiny fire trucks and school marching bands parade down the streets lined with people watching and cheering.
    (2) Parade floats, which are decorated vehicles, carry local stars, like the child who won the spelling bee or the winner of a local beauty contest.
    People work very hard making a parade. (3)So, the worst thing to happen on parade day is rain. To rain on someone's parade is to ruin something for someone else. Here’s an example: “I hate to rain on your parade, but the guy you like is not coming to the party.”
Picnic
    On Independence Day people in the U.S. like to eat outside. (4)Friends, family, and neighbors will come together and picnic. Picnics are easy and fun. So, (5) when something is difficult we say it is no picnic. “Taking the TOEFL exam is no picnic. I studied for months and it was still so hard! ”
(6)Fireworks
    (7)Many people around the world celebrate important days with fireworks, including the United States. Independence Day fireworks shows are explosive, bright and colorful.
    The word “fireworks” can be used in other situations, both good and bad. (8)For example, if two people are having a fiery argument, others may tell them to “stop all the fireworks”. Fireworks, in this case, are a bad thing. But, good fireworks are exciting and beautiful, like falling in love. (9)A kiss or touch of a lover’s hand can create fireworks between two people.(10)Even couples who have been married for many years but who are deeply in love can have fireworks explode each time they kiss.
    If you want to see real fireworks in the U.S., visit during the 4th of July. The U.S. traditionally celebrates its freedom with huge, outdoor public gatherings and fireworks at night.
In Washington, D.C., for example, large crowds gather near the Washington Monument to listen to music and watch a big fireworks show. In other cities and smaller towns, local people also listen to music concerts and watch fireworks explode after dark.
    They also play songs that celebrate the American dream. You might hear Neil Diamond’s “America”,a song that honors the American Dream and America’s immigrant experience.
【精解精析】

  1. Independence Day

【解析】本题的出题点在目的处。根据题干上面的提示信息Parade in celebrations(庆祝游行)可知,本题与parade有关,讲座中提到Cities and towns, large and small, across the U.S. close their main streets to make way for Independence Day parades,注意专有名词的首字母需大写,故答案为Independence Day。
2. Parade floats
【解析】本题的出题点在从句处(which)。根据讲座中提到的Parade floats,which are decorated vehicles, carry local stars(游行花车,即被装饰的汽车,载着当地的明星),可知空格处应填Parade floats。
3. ruin something
【解析】本题的出题点在最高级处。根据题干可知这里问的是rain on someone’s parade表示的意思。讲座中提到The worst thing to happen on parade day is rain. To rain on someone’s parade is to ruin something for someone else,因此答案为ruin something。
4. gather and picnic
【解析】本题的出题点在列举处。根据题干上方的小标题Picnics可知本题是对picnic的相关描 述。讲座中提到Friends,family, and neighbors will come together and picnic,故本题的答案可概括为 gather and picnic 。
5. difficult
【解析】本题的出题点在细节理解处。根据题干可知,这里讲的是picnic在特定语境下的含义和用法。讲座中提到when something is difficult we say it is no picnic(当事情比较困难时,我们就可以说it is no picnic), 因此no picnic表示“不容易,并非轻松的事”,故答案为difficult。
6. Fireworks
【解析】本题的出题点在小标题处。根据题干可知,该空格处所缺词为第三部分的概述,即小标题。讲座中提到了fireworks,然后接下来的内容都与fireworks相关,可见此处是指与Parade和Picnic并列的三大庆祝活动之一,故答案为Fireworks。
7. important days
【解析】本题的出题点在细节处。题干为:世界各地的人们用烟火来庆祝 。根据讲座中提到的Many people around the world celebrate important days with fireworks, including the United States可知,人们放烟花来庆祝重要的日子,故答案为important days。
8. argument
【解析】本题的出题点在举例处。根据题干可推测,这里问的是在什么样的情形下会使用stop all the fireworks这个短语。讲座中提到if two people are having a fiery argument others may tell them to “stop all the fireworks”,由此可知,答案为argument。
9. touch
【解析】本题的出题点在列举处。根据该题上方的小标题“Fireworks” used in good situations可知,该题是列举Fireworks在好的情形下的寓意。讲座中提到 A kiss or touch of a lovers hand can create fireworks between two people,因此可得答案touch。
10. fireworks explode
【解析】本题的出题点在强调(Even)和转折处(but)。根据题干可推测,这里问的是已婚夫妻接吻时会发生什么。讲座中提到Even couples who have been married for many years but who are deeply in love can have fireworks explode each time they kiss,由此可推测这里表示夫妻接吻时会产生火花,答案应为 fireworks explode。

SECTION B
Conversation One
【听力原文】
M: Hello, Gill.
W: Hi there, Ben.
M: Well, living in London, I know all about traffic, especially traffic jams—that’s where too many cars, lorries and buses get stuck in long queues on the road.
W: Yes, they are stuck together, just like jam! And ifs a big problem in cities around the world. It could be the situation that one day, all the traffic becomes one long queue and we have a global traffic jam!
M: Ifs quite a worrying thought because already there are a billion cars in the world.(1)And it is estimated that by 2050 there will be 4 billion cars.
W: That would really cause some serious gridlock—that means roads in towns and cities are so blocked that traffic is unable to move.
M: (2)Its like that now in some developing countries where there has been a huge increase in car ownership; as people become wealthier, they want to own a car. But in one Indian city, for example, that’s a big problem. That’s Theo Leggett in Mumbai—a city which people describe as a potent symbol—a powerful symbol—of India’s economic success. But that success has come at a price.
W: Yes, the traffic, a confusing, chaotic mix of vehicles.
M: So when the commuters start their journeys—or get behind the wheel—in the morning rush-hour—the busiest time of day—they could spend hours just trying to make a relatively short journey to work.
W: Well, I think it would be quicker to walk! That’s certainly a good option in London, where research has found that traffic is slower than it was 100 years ago.
M: (3)So is this the end of the road for cars?
W: You mean will we stop using them? I think not.
M: What’s the solution then?
W: The solution is technological. (4)Better technology to make cars less gas-guzzing, like using less fuel, which causes less pollution and they need to be smaller too.
M: Yes, one company is already designing an M.I.T. City car which actually folds. Another is designing a thinner car with two wheels—like a motorbike but more stable.
W: (5)And we heard about self-driving robot cars that can save space on the road by driving closer to the car in front.
M: All very clever ideas. But there is one thing you can’t change—and that’s the driver! And come on, Gill, who’re worse—men or women drivers?
W: It’s definitely men! Women drivers are very safe at all the time in my experience.
M: I thought you’d say that!
1. How many cars will there be by 2050?
2. Why do people in developing countries buy more cars?
3. How does the woman think of using cars?
4. Which solution is NOT mentioned about cars by the woman?
5. Why does making self-driving robot cars seem to be a solution to traffic jam?
【精解精析】
1. B【解析】本题出题点在数字信息处。对话中提到And it is estimated that by 2050 there will be 4 billion cars.(据估计,到2050年,汽车数量将达到40亿),故选B。
2. B【解析】本题出题点在因果关系处(as)。对话中男士提到发展中国家的汽车拥有量急剧增加,原因是as people become wealthier, they want to own a car.(人们变得更加富裕,他们就想拥有一辆车),故选B。
3. B【解析】本题出题点在自问自答处。男士问女士人们是不是将放弃使用汽车,女士回答You mean will we stop using them? I think not.(你是问我们是否会停止使用汽车?我认为不会),可知,女性认为人们还会继续使用汽车,故得答案B。
4. C【解析】本题出题点在列举处。女士说Better technology to make cars less gas-guzzling, like using less fuel, which causes less pollution and they need to be smaller too.(需要更好的技术来使汽车更省油,例如减少燃料的使用,这样就可以减少污染,汽车的体积也应该变小),并没有提到制造有更多座位的汽车,故选C。
5.C【解析】本题出题点在重要信息处。对话中女士提到And I’ve heard about self-driving robot cars that can save space on the road by driving closer to the car in front.(我听说无人驾驶机器人汽车可以开得离前面的车更近,以此来节省道路空间),可知,无人驾驶机器人汽车是通过节省道路空间来缓解交通堵塞的,故选C。

Conversation Two
【听力原文】
M: Excuse me, Mrs. Hanson. My name is John, John Grant. I work as a waiter in the campus dining hall, in the faculty dining room.
W: What can I do for you, John?
M: Well, I work week nights, except for Friday. (6) I was wondering if I could switch from working the dinner service to working at lunch.
W: That’s going to be a problem. I am afraid we don’t have any openings at lunch time. A lot of students want to work then, so it is really rare for us to have an open spot at that time of day.
M: Oh, you see, (7)I have joined this group, the University Jazz Band, and the band’s practice time is right around dinner time. You know, it is so hard to get into this group. I have auditioned ten times since I have been at the school, so I am... Anyway, so I am really hoping to have the dinner hour free so I can go to practice.
W: Well, we do have other business hours, like breakfast.
M: Eh, that won’t work. I am sorry. I mean that, I can’t work that early. I have a very important music class to take, and it is like, the first thing in the morning.
W: Well, if you don’t mind working in the kitchen, we’ve got some pretty flexible hours for students food- prep work, anything from early morning to late afternoon.
M: What’s prep work?
W: (8)You prepare food for the cooks. You know, like cutting up vegetables for soup, or cleaning greens for salads.
M: Oh, that doesn’t sound..., I mean... (9)Being a waiter, I get to see a lot of the professors, like in a different light, we joke around a little you know. In the classroom, they always have to be pretty formal.
W: Well, the money is no different since we pay students the same amount for any of the jobs here in food service, so it’s up to you.
M: I always thought that sacrificing for my art, that’d mean working long hours as a musician for, like, no money. I didn’t think it’d mean, peeling carrots.
W: I am offering you something that has the hours you want, it is right here on campus, and you make as much money as you did being a waiter, quite a sacrifice.
M: (10)I am sorry. I know you are just trying to help. I guess I should look into the food-prep job.
W: OK, then, I’ll tell the kitchen manager that you will stop by tomorrow to talk about the job and schedule your hours. And I will let the dining hall manager know that he needs to find a new waiter for the evening.
M: Oh, I guess that’s it. Thanks, Mrs. Hanson.
6. Why does the man go to visit the woman?
7. What activity does the man want to do at dinner time?
8. What job does the woman suggest the man do?
9. What does the man imply about his job as a waiter?
10. How does the man think of the job that the woman suggests?
【精解精析】
6. C【解析】本题出题点在对话开头的问答处。对话中男士提到I was wondering if I could switch from working the dinner service to working at lunch.即男士想知道是否可以把在食堂晚餐时间上班调换到午餐时间,故选C。
7. A【解析】本题出题点在结果处(so...)。对话中男士提到“希望在晚餐时间练习”,话中的practice time对应选项中的rehearse(排练),jazz band对应选项中的music group。故选A。
8. A【解析】本题出题点在列举处(like...)。对话中女士向男士建议说Well,if you don’t mind working in the kitchen, we’ve got some pretty flexible hours for students doing food-prep work, anything from early morning to late afternoon.紧接着具体解释了food-prep work的内容:You prepare food for the cooks. You know, like cutting up vegetables for soup, or cleaning greens for salads.由此可知,她为男士推荐主要工作是准备食材,故选A。
9. D【解析】本题出题点在总结归纳处。男士在对话中提到Being a waiter, I get to see a lot of the professors, like in a different light, we joke around a little you know. In the classroom,they always have to be pretty formal.(作为一名服务员,我可以从不同的角度了解教授们的很多方面,比如我们会开一些玩笑,在教室里,他们通常需要表现得很正式),可知,男士认为服务员这份工作可以使他更好地了解教授,故选D。
10.C【解析】本题考查说话人的态度。对话结尾处男士提到,I am sorry. I know you are just trying to help. I guess I should look into the food-prep job.由此可见男士对于女士向其推荐的这个工作机会还是表示感谢的,会认真考虑,故选C。
PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11. 【答案】C
【译文】世界上最大的体育盛事——奥林匹克运动会,秉承“重在参与”这一业余运动员的理念。
【解析】本题考查名词性从句。that后是一个同位语从句,在这个同位语从句中还嵌套了一个主语从句,同时这个主语从句缺少自己的主语成分,故选C。
12. 【答案】D
【译文】所需要的只是对生活必需品的持续供应。
【解析】本题考查定语从句。首先,句子的主语为all,空格部分引导的只能是定语从句而非主语从句;其次,先行词为all时,定语从句关系代词用that而不用which。故选D。
13. 【答案】A
【译文】他的第一部小说《夜》描述了一个小男孩看到的纳粹暴行。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。see through和其逻辑主语Nazi crimes之间是被动关系,所以使用see的过去分词seen; as seen为一种省略形式,补全应为as the crimes were seen。故选A。
14. 【答案】A
【译文】两年前能有机会出国留学,我很感激。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。appreciate后面要与动名词连用,不与不定式连用,同时由于该动名词表示的动作发生在主句谓语appreciate之前,又和逻辑主语I是被动关系,故使用完成被动式。故选A。
15.【答案】D
【译文】如果不是最近和杰里•布朗联系过,你一定会认为右边的那幅照片很奇怪。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。条件状语从句表示对过去的虚拟,所以应该使用过去完成时。故选D。
16.【答案】A
【译文】春节假期她只得留宿在旅馆的房间里。
【解析】本题考查动词短语辨析题。put up意为“留宿”,根据语境,选项A正确。put down意为“写下”;put on意为“上演”;put out意为“熄灭”,均与句意不符,故排除。
17.【答案】B
【译文】一有进一步的消息,我就会notify你。画线部分的意思是    
【解析】本题考查词义理解题。原句中notify意为“通知”,而inform意为“通知;告诉”,两者意思相同,因此选项为答案。signify意为“象征”;communicate意为“交流”;exchange意为“交换”,均与句意不符,故排除。
18.【答案】A
【译文】由于利息高,他们知道向地下钱庄借钱是非常冒险的,但他们没有别的选择。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析题。risky意为“冒险的;危险的”,含有较强的“主动去冒险”的意味,符合句意。 daring意为“勇敢的;大胆的”,形容人胆大,敢于冒险,常指在危险情况下,能灵活机智地采取行动;bold意为“胆大的;无畏的”,指具有向困难或危险境况挑战的倾向;crucial意为“至关重要的”,均与句意不符,故排除。
19.【答案】D
【译文】哈里抿了一口酒,然后放下杯子。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析题。sip意为“抿;一小口”,take a sip意为“抿一小口;小啜”,D符合句意。bite意为 “咬;叮”;lick意为“舔”;mouth意为“嘴”,mouthful才是“一口”,均与句意不符,故排除。
20.【答案】B
【译文】鉴于该问题的重要性,有必要进行深入的讨论。
【解析】本题考查介词短语辨析题。in view of意为“鉴于;考虑到”,符合句意。in case of意为“如果发生;万一”;in charge of意为“负责;主管”;in spite of 意为“尽管;不顾”,均与句意不符,故排除。
21.【答案】A
【译文】下列句子中哪一个不是在阐述事实?
【解析】本题考查句意理解题。根据题意可知,本题需要选的是一个没有表明客观事实的句子。A中的must be 表示一种推断,是具有某种可能性的意思,不是在阐述事实,因此答案为A。
22.【答案】C
【译文】下列句子中哪一个不能省略掉“should”?
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气题。根据题意,通过分析可知,本题旨在考查考生对should用法的掌握情况。在本题中,A、B和D均为虚拟语气,先行词分别为request,insists和demands,从句中的should可省略。只有C中的should不能省略,should have表示应该做某事而没有做,故选C。
23.【答案】D
【译文】下列句子中哪一个不含有同位语(从句)?
【解析】本题考查句子成分题。根据题意可知,本题需要选的是一个不包含同位语的句子。A中的ourselves是 we的同位语;B中的old and young和strong and weak是all people的同位语;C则含有一个由that引导的同位语从句,解释说明前面的the fact;只有D不含有同位语,故选D。
24.【答案】A
【译文】他一到,她就开始抱怨。
【解析】本题考查倒装结构题。Hardly... when...的结构为 Hardly had sb. done sth. when...,故选A。
25.【答案】C
【译文】这个新扩建的广场有以前的四倍大。
【解析】本题考查倍数表达题。表达倍数时,有一种结构为“the +计量名词+ of + A+ be +倍数+ that + of + B”, 可知此处应填入that,故选C。
26.【答案】A
【译文】那位前军事统治者宣布原来的选举无效。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。void意为“无效的”,符合句意。vulgar意为“粗俗的”;surplus意为“剩余的”;extravagant 意为“奢侈的”,三者均不符合句意。
27.【答案】A
【译文】他太过担心你的问题了。
【解析】本题考查词组和固定搭配。on one’s mind意为“俯念”,符合句意;out of mind意为“忘记;心不在焉”;没有off one’s mind和to one’s mind这两种说法。

28.【答案】B
【译文】在过去的十年间,芝加哥和纽约的摩天大楼同时在增加。
【解析】本题考查副词辨析。simultaneously意为“同时地”,符合句意。homogeneously意为“同质地,相似地”;spontaneously意为“自发地”;harmoniously意为“和谐地”,三者均不符合句意。
29.【答案】C
【译文】作为一个多才多艺的演员,他可以表演、唱歌、跳舞,并早会演奏好几种乐器。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。versatile意为“多才多艺的”,符合句意。sophisticated意为“老练的,圆滑的”;flexible意为“灵活的”;productive意为“多产的;富有成效的”,三者均不符合句意。
30.【答案】B
【译文】我们收集到的所有关于那起案件的信息加起来非常少。
【解析】本题考查词组和固定搭配。add up to意为“合计达,总共”,符合句意。make up for意为“弥补” come up with 意为“想出、提出”;put up with意为“忍受”,三者均不符合句意。

PART IV CLOZE
【精解精析】
31.I【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格前为failure to,后为it,因此空格处应填动词原形。空格后的it指代句首的a new medication,故所填动词应能接medication为宾语。备选动词中,prescribe可与medication 搭配,表示“开药”,符合题意。故选I。
32.A【解析】本题考查名词辨析。空格听填词与and前的connection—起作of的宾语,故空格处应填名词,且该名词意思与connection“联系”相关,并能与a strong sense of搭配。备选名词中,community“共享, 共有”可与have a strong sense搭配,意为“有强烈团体归属感”,符合题意。故选A。
33.N【解析】本题考查副词辨析。本句基本结构完整,所以空格处应填副词作状语,修饰less。本文的中心意思是:人与人之间积极、和谐的关系和情感对健康大有裨益,同时结合后一句中的significantly less chest pain,可以推断substantially“大量地”为正确选项。故选N。
34.J【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。空格前为定冠词the,后为effects of love,所以空格处较有可能填形容词,修饰effects,表明“爱”具有什么样的作用。由本段提到的三个研究结果可知,此作用应是有利的,protective“保护的”为正确选项。故选J。
35.O【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格前为Instead of,后为名词短语the time...,故空格处应填动名词,且该动名词能与后面的介词as搭配。结合句首的Instead of可知,所填动名词与本句谓语动词see意思相近。因此,答案为viewing“看待”,view... as...意为“将……看成/当成……”。故选O。
36.E【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格前为is,后为名词短语the healing values of…,故空格处较有可能填现在分词。第二段的三项科学研究表明爱对健康有益,因此documenting“用文献支持”为正确选项。故选E。
37. M【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。空格前面为all,后面为traditions,故空格处较有可能填形容词。结合空格后的as well as many secular ones可知,所填形容词应与secular意思相反,spiritual“精神的”是正确选项。故选M。
38.L【解析】本题考查名词辨析。空格前的both和and提示空格处应填与giver相呼应的词,recipient“接受者”为正确选项。故选L。
39.B【解析】本题考查名词辨析。该句为全文的总结语。空格前的the wisdom of和and提示空格所填词应是与love并列的名词,且表示一种积极的情感,compassion“同情”为正确选项。故选B。
40.H【解析】本题考查副词辨析。空格所在句基本结构完整,所以空格处应填副词修饰后面的形容词isolated。备选副词中,increasingly “不断增加地,越来越多地”代人句中,意思最为贴切,故选H。
PARTV READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE
【精解精析】
41.A【解析】细节题。据第五段首句描述 the local air quality management regime that has been in place since 1997,当地的空气质量管理制度于1997年便产生了。由此可以推断,其距现在应该超过了 15年,A中less than 15 years与原文不符,故为错误陈述,故选A。
42. B【解析】推断题。第七段第二句给出了具体的原因:The proposals... have been rejected by the Scottish government on the grounds that they “would deliver no obvious benefit”. B是对该句的转述,故选B。
PASSAGE TWO
【精解精析】

43.C【解析】推断题。首段提及European banking system in apparent meltdown and extreme divergence,接着第二段首句提及Action by the ECB... has succeeded in stilling the waters, at least to some degree.并在第二句举例提及Even a Greek exit seems, for the time being, to be off the table.由此可知C的含义与此相符,故为答案。

44. B【解析】推断题。第四段提到For Britain, still reliant as it is on some sort of a recovery in European trade to see it through its own austerity program...,由此可知B符合文意,故为答案。
45.A【解析】细节题。第六段末句提及This is a paper that sets out to prove that the poor growth
performance of most EU countries, including the UK, is primarily down to fiscal austerity.由此可知A的含义与此相符,故为答案。
PASSAGE THREE
【精解精析】
46.A【解析】推断题。本题的出题点在直接引语处。根据题干关键信息one of Oliver Goldsmith’s teachers将答案锁定在第二段第四句,再结合本段首句Anecdotal reports support this可知,此处的this指的就是第一段提到的作者的观点(argument),也就是说有一些名人轶事可以支持作者的观点,后文就举了一些名人的例子,包括引用奥利弗•戈德史密斯的一个老师的话,可见作者提到这句话自然也是为了支持他的观点,故选A。
47.C【解析】细节题。本题的出题点在因果关系和举例处。根据题干信息词Pablo Picasso将答案锁定在第三段第一、二句。这两句提到,其中一些天才学生在学校里表现得很差,是因为他们的天分并不在学业上,也许我们可以这样解释毕加索。C项的could not cope with their studies at school successfully与原文的have done poorly in school属于同义转述,故选C。
48 .B【解析】推断题。本题的出题点在比较句式处。根据题干信息attributed their success将答案锁定在文章最后一段首句。 该句提到每当有天赋很高的学生谈到什么对他们能力的发展很重要时,他们更有可能提到他们的家庭,而不是学校或老师。由此可知许多有天赋的人更多地是把他们的成功归功于家庭影响,而不是学校教育和培训,故本题选B。C项指“更多地归功于父母的鼓励而不是学校教育”,此处的parents’ encouragement(父母的鼓励)过于片面,因此可排除。
PASSAGE FOUR
【精解精析】
49.A【解析】推断题。本题的出题点在段首。根据题干信息将答案锁定在文章第二段。第二段首句指出,哺乳动物是由爬行动物进化而来的,故选A。该段最后一句提到,哺乳动物会玩耍,这提供了一个学习机会,而卵生动物则没有这种机会,但这并不表明卵生动物没有其他机会学习,故排除干扰项B。
50.C【解析】细节题。本题考查文章的重要细节。根据题干信息将答案锁定在文章第三段第二句。该句指出,有许多哺乳动物,其中大部分是在6500万年前恐龙和其他爬行动物灭绝之后进化来的,那次灭绝为当时已经存在的少量的小型哺乳动物提供了机会。由此可知,现有的许多哺乳动物都是在恐龙和其他爬行动物大规模灭绝之后由小型哺乳动物进化而来的,故选C。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE

 51.It means “overstepped”.

【解析】第四段首句提及But European air pollution limits... are being breached in urban areas...,且根据下文可知,在英国43个空气检测区域,有40个超出了空气污染限度,因而上文中的 breached应为“打破(限度)”的意思,与overstepped意思一致,所以答案为It means “overstepped”。
PASSAGE TWO
52.Opposed.
【解析】由第六段首句 You need to be a little bit careful with these findings, which are somewhat self-serving.和末段首句 Even so. the paper suffers from one, rather glaring, omission.可 知作者对the National Institute的研究结果持反对的观点,故Opposed为答案。
53. The monetary conditions across the euro monetary union.
【解析】通读全文可知,本文主要叙述了欧元区的金融状况以及各方对此采取的措施或评论,故The monetary conditions across the euro monetary union为答案。
PASSAGE THREE
54.The lack of fit between gifted students and their schools.
【解析】本题的出题点在文章的主题句处。题目问:什么使天才学生通常对他们在学校的经历没什么好说的?根据题干关键信息将答案锁定在文章首段第一句。文章提到,由于天才学生不适应他们的学校,因此,这一类学生对他们在学校的经历没有什么好说的,这一点都不奇怪。(Given the lack of fit between gifted students and their schools, it is not surprising that such students often have little good to say about their school experience.)由此可知,答案是他们觉得学校不适合自己。
PASSAGE FOUR
55.A book or a science magazine.
【解析】本题考查文章出处,可以从文章的内容和语气上加以判断。题目问:你认为文章很可能出自哪里?根据题干信息可知本题答案应着眼于全文。文章主要介绍了哺乳动物和灵长类动物这种特殊的哺乳动物的情况。推断可知,文章很有可能选自某本书或某一科学杂志。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
这篇作文是英语专业四级考试常考的一类作文模式,即针对这个问题可以有正反两种观点,观点本身无所谓对错,关键是如何对自己的观点展开充分的论述。第一段可以对话题的背景进行简单的介绍,并给出自己的观点。第二段分析影响男生的性格与学业的多种因素,比如女教师偏多、传统的重男轻女思想等。第三段总结全文,指出要想在真正意义上帮助男生改善性格并提高学习成绩,学校需要找出根本原因并采取有效措施,这样才能从根本上解决问题。

【高分范文】

My Views on Single-sex Education

    It is reported that one middle school in Shanghai offered two boys only classes in order to help them become more masculine and improve their academic performance. However,after a second thought, we can find single-sex education has several pitfalls that may give rise to severe problems. Thus,I do not support it.
    First of all,why are boys not as masculine as before? Is the combination of boys and girls in one class the real reason for it? Conspicuously,we can find that there are more female teachers than male ones, exerting much influence on the formation of boys,characters. And also,due to the traditional thought preferring boys to girls, boys are often more likely to be spoiled by their parents. Growing under such circumstances, many boys are accustomed to being cared for,so they sometimes behave like their counterparts. In addition, it seems rather ridiculous to attribute boys’ poor academic performance to having classes with girls together. Academic performance is under the influence of a number of factors. What’s the point in offering courses to boys only in the hope of enhancing their academic performance?
    In brief, it needs further study to find out the root-cause of boys’ less masculinity and poor academic performance,rather than rashly ascribe the problem to the designing of courses. Otherwise,it may not only leave the problem unresolved but make it even worse.
【闪光词汇】
masculine adj.有男子气概的
pitfall n.潜在问题
give rise to造成(问题)
conspicuously  adv.明显地
ridiculous adj.荒谬的
root-cause n.根本原因

MODEL TEST SEVEN答案及解析

PART I DICTATION
【听力原文】

The Purpose of Science

    Contrary to popular opinion, / the purpose of science is neither to discover the ultimate “truth”,/ nor to offer its findings as absolute and final. / Scientific theories are always subject to modification / if new evidence becomes available. / Science, as we have said, / attempts to accumulate data based on the available evidence. / We have not been everywhere in the universe, / thus, in keeping with the principle of objectivity, / science must deal with probability, not certainty, / and thus cannot present its findings as the absolute and final truth.

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
【听力原文】

How to Stop Thinking Too Much

    It’s a golden rule to think before you speak, but you can run into trouble when you think so much that you fail to act, or you think yourself into a state of uncontrollable anxiety. Are you looking for a way to stop thinking too much? That’s what we are going to talk about today.
    There are several red flags that you are doing too much thinking for your own good. Here are a few of them:
    (1)Are you consumed by the same thought over and over again? Are you not making progress by thinking about this particular thing? If so, this may be a sign that you should move on.
    Have you analyzed the same situation from a million angles? If you’ve found too many ways to look at something before you decide how to act, you may be counterproductive.
    (2)Have you enlisted the help of your twenty closest friends in thinking about a particular thing? If so, then it’s time to realize that you can only ask for so many opinions about the same idea before you drive yourself insane.
    Here are some ways to help you stop thinking too much.
    First, meditate. If you feel like you don’t know how to stop thinking, you need to learn what it’s like to “let go” of your thoughts, so that it’s something you can do deliberately. (3)Imagine that thinking is like breathing; you do it all the time, without even realizing it. But if you need to, you can hold your breath. Meditating will help you learn how to release your thoughts.
    (4)Just spending 15-20 minutes meditating every morning can make a dramatic impact on your ability to stay in the present and let go of all of your nagging thoughts. You can also meditate at night to help yourself wind down.
    (5)Next, exercise. (6)Running or even walking vigorously can help you take your mind off all of those annoying thoughts and focus on your body. (7)Go hiking. Being around nature and seeing the beauty and stillness around you will keep you more focused on the present moment. Go swimming. Swimming is such a physical activity that it ’s even harder to swim than think.
    (8)Saying your ideas out loud also helps you let go of your thoughts. Once you’ve said everything aloud, even if you’re talking to yourself, you’ve begun the process of letting go. Walk around and pace if you have to. Once you’ve put your ideas out there, you’ve begun the process of putting them out into the world and out of your thoughts. You can say them aloud to yourself, your cat, or to a trusted friend.
And last but not least, write down your problems. (9)Make a practical list of the things that are troubling you. Whether you’re writing on paper or a computer, you should first define a problem, (10)write down your options, and then list the pros and cons for each option. Seeing your thoughts in front of you will also help you stop cycling through them in your head. Once you can’t think of anything more to write, your mind has done its job, and it’s time to stop thinking.
【精解精析】
1.same
【解析】本题的出题点在疑问处。根据题干处的小标题Over-thinking manifestations可知,此处考查的是想得太多的表现,讲座中提到Are you consumed by the same thought over and over again?故得答案same。
2.opinions
【解析】本题的出题点在总结归纳处。此处考查的还是想得太多的表现,题干问询问太多的______,从定位句可以推断出,询问太多的意见也是想得太多的一个表现,故得答案opinions。
3.breathing
【解析】本题的出题点在关键信息处。根据题干处的小标题Meditate可知,此处考查的内容与冥想有关,再根据提示信息How to do可知下面考查的是该如何冥想,讲座中提到Imagine that thinking is like breathing,故得答案breathing。
4.15-20
【解析】本题的出题点在数字信息处。此处还是考查应该如何冥想,题干问每天早上或晚上花__分钟,讲座中提到Just spending 15-20 minutes meditating every morning...,故得答案 15-20。
5.Exercise
【解析】本题的出题点在列举处(First...Next...)。根据前一个小标题Meditate可知,此处仍然是在介绍防止想得太多的方法,讲座中介绍完Meditate后,接着说Next, exercise.故得答案Exercise。
6.Divert
【解析】本题的出题点在理解归纳处。根据此处的层级关系可知,此处是考查锻炼的作用,讲座中提到跑步和走路可以让你关注自己的身体;途步旅行可以让你置身于美景当中从而专注于当下;游泳让人停止思考。由此可以推断出锻炼的作用是让你的注意力转移,故得答案Divert。
7.walking
【解析】本题的出题点在强调处(even)。根据提示信息How to do可知,此处要考查的是应该如何锻炼,讲座中提到Running or even walking vigorously can help you take your mind off all those annoying thoughts and to focus on your body.故得答案walking。
8.thoughts
【解析】本题的出题点在强调处(also)。根据题干处的小标题可知,此处考查的内容与说出你的想法有关,再根据提示信息Function可知,此处应填入的是说出你的想法的作用,讲座中提到Saying your ideas out loud also helps you let go of your thoughts.故得答案thoughts。
9.list
【解析】本题的出题点在关键信息处。根据题干处的小标题Write down your problems,可知此处要考查的内 容与写下你的问题有关,再根据提示信息How to do,可知此处应填入如何写下问题,讲座中提到Make a practical list of the things that are troubling you.故得答案list。
10.options
【解析】本题的出题点在关键信息处。此处考查的内容仍与写下你的问题有关,讲座中提到write down your options,故得答案options。
SECTION B 
Conversation One
【听力原文】
W: Hey, Mike, what age do you have to be in Canada to drive?
M: Well,(1)it used to be 16,but it recently got pushed up to 18. Now again each province controls its driving and the age limits,(1)but in Ontario the age limit went from 16 to 18.
W: And how do you feel about that? Do you think that’s a good thing that you have to be 18 instead of 16?
M: Yeah,(2)I think it should be 18 or even 20 before you,re allowed to drive.
W: Really! What do you think about someone who is 17,and so they’ve been driving for one year and then the law changes and becomes 18 as the minimum age? Do you think that person who has been driving should lose his license for one more year?
M: Well, no, and I think generally, well, that happened in Ontario. Of course that situation would have arisen. (3)What happens then is generally laws are made so that the people who have been driving are then put into a system where they can still drive but they’re under a probation system until 18.
W: I see. So why do you think you should wait until you are 18 or 20 to be able to drive? M:Maturity.
W: You don’t think at 16 you’re mature enough?
M: No. Because I think at 18 you,re an adult, you’re more responsible, just like you’re not tried in the legal system as an adult until you are 18 years old. I think that it should be the same for driving.
W: Yeah,I don’t know if I agree because I drove when I was 16.
M: So did I.
W: Yeah, and I felt mature enough. (4)In fact,I know my father. When he was young, he actually began driving at about 12. When he was about 12 years old,he lived in the countryside and it was OK for him to drive at 12.
M: Well, I can understand that because way back then there was a lot less traffic. (5)I think that today—because the traffic is a lot worse—it’s a better idea to have, you know, to make sure the drivers are prepared and mature and understand what to do in case something goes wrong.
W: OK,fair enough,but how do you know that someone at 18, who has never driven is any more prepared than someone who,s 16?
M: Well, you don’t, but generally if somebody is older and more mature, then they’re going to be a little bit wiser. They’re just going to make better decisions. That’s just my opinion.
W: OK. Sounds good.
1.What do we know about the age limit for driving in Ontario?
2.What does the man think about the change of the age limit for driving?
3.What will happen to someone who is 17 but has been driving for a year?
4.What do we know about the woman’s father?
5.What does the man say about the driving situation nowadays?
【精解精析】

  1. A【解析】题目问:关于安大略省的驾驶年龄限制,我们可以知道什么?由句(1)可知,加拿大安大略省以前的驾驶年龄限制是16岁,但是最近提高到了18岁。故选A。

2.B【解析】题目问:男士对于驾驶年龄改变的看法是什么?由句(2)可知,男士认为允许驾驶的年龄应该是18岁甚至是20岁。由此可知,他认为提高驾驶年龄限制是一件好事,故选B。
3.D【解析】题目问:17岁但已经驾驶了一年的人将会遭遇什么?由句(3)可知,对于17岁但已经驾驶了一年的人来说,他们可以继续驾驶,但是到18岁之前要处于一种察看的制度体系下。故选D。
4.C【解析】题目问:我们可以了解到关于那位女士的父亲的什么?由句(4)可知,女士称她的父亲实际上12岁就开始驾驶了。故选C。
5.D【解析】题目问:男士对于现今的交通情况持什么观点?由句(5)可知,男士说现在的交通情况要比以前差很多。故选D。
Conversation Two
【听力原文】
W: Hello, Frank.
M: Hi, Debby. Of what class do you think you are—lower, middle or upper?
W:(6)I suppose if you look at my background, you could say I am of middle class.
M: Yes, me too—middle class. So we belong to a social group that consists of well-educated  people, who have good jobs and are neither very rich nor very poor.
W: Well, we are certainly not rich! But being middle class is not just a British thing.
M: No. The number of middle class people around the world is rising as people earn more money. So, can you guess how many people are predicted to be middle class in the world by 2030?
W: 3.9 billion, I guess.
M: You are wrong.(7)The figure is 4.9 billion. Being middle class involves a number of factors—good education, a good job, sometimes owning your own home and having a number of possessions like a car.
W: It’s quite a privileged or comfortable position to be in(8)but the most important factor is having disposable income—that’s spare money to spend on more than just things you need for everyday survival, like food. That’s what you’ve got, right?
M: A little—spare money to spend on few luxuries like a holiday, a computer or a meal at a restaurant. But we always complain we never have enough money, don’t we?
W: Yes, we do: the UN says to be middle class you have to earn between $10 and $100 per day. In the UK I think that’s quite a small amount, so we could say, very generally, we are quite well-off—but in places such as Asia there has been a huge shift recently from people of poorer working class to middle class ones.
M: It’s interesting that by 2030 there could be 3.2 billion middle class people in Asia—overtaking Europe and America. Now there’s a new chapter in China. (9)Farmers leaving their farmlands for big cities are becoming not just workers but consumers too. In short, they’re off to join the middle class.
W: You are right. People are now moving to the city not just to find work but to spend the money they earn. They are becoming consumers because their income has gone up.
M: (10)So, this is because of industrialization—a change from an economy based on farming to a growth in factories making things.
W: This has led to a consumer society—that’s where people are spending money on things like fridges and
washing machines.
6. What class does the woman think herself belong to?
7. How many people of middle class will there be by 2030?
8. What’s the most important factor in being a member of middle class?
9. According to the man, who will become new members of middle class?
10. What has caused the number of middle class to increase?
【精解精析】
6.B【解析】男士问女士属于哪个阶级,女士回答说I suppose if you look at my background,you could say I am of middle class.(根据我的背景,你可以说我属于中产阶级),故选B。
7.C【解析】对话中男士让女士预估2030年时中产阶级的人数是多少,女士猜是3.9 billion (39亿),男士说女士的估计有误,并指出The figure is 4.9 billion. 即49亿,故选C。
8.D【解析】女士说but the most important factor is having disposable income-that’s spare money to spend on more than just things you need for everyday survival, like food.(但是最重要的因素是有可自由支配的收入,即有多余的钱花在除日常生活必需品,像食物之外的事情上),故选D。
9.A【解析】男士提到Farmers leaving their farmlands for big cities are becoming not just workers but consumers too. In short, they're off to join the middle class.(农民离开农田,去往大城市,他们不仅成为工人,还成为消费者。简而言之,他们将要加人中产阶级的行列),故可得答案A。
10.A【解析】男士提到农民将成为新的中产阶段,他们到城市里,不仅是去找工作,还成为了消费者。解释原因时,男士说this is because of industrialization——a change from an economy based on farming to a growth in factories making things.(这是因为工业化从以农业为基础的经济变为依靠制造商品的工厂的发展),也就是说工业化让越来越多的农民变成中产阶级,故选A。
PART III LANGUAGE USAGE
11.【答案】A
【译文】我的一位老主顾叫弗莱德•哈斯布鲁克,是一名电子产品推销员。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。regular表示“有规律的;经常的;定期的”,regular customer意为“常客,老主顾”,normal表示“正常的,常态的”;formal表示“正式的,正规的”;conventional 表示“依照传统的;常规的”。故选A。
12.【答案】C
【译文】蒸汽接触冷的表面而凝结成水珠。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。condense表示“凝结,浓缩”;shrink表示“收缩;(受潮、受热或凉)萎缩”,如衣服缩水;contract表示“缩小,缩短,紧缩”,如肌肉收缩;compress表示“压缩,压紧;将某物压进(较)小的空间”。故选C。
13.【答案】A
【译文】一种突然产生的强烈的嫉妒感充斥了他的全身。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。surge表示“突然产生;激增”;tide表 示“潮水;潮流”;rage表示“狂怒,盛怒”;tidings表示“消息,音信”。故选A。
14.【答案】A
【译文】他去前台了,可能去办退房手续了。
【解析】本题考查副词辨析。presumably表示“可能,大概”;preliminarily表示“预备性地”;formerly表示“以前,从前”;formally表示“正式地;正规地”。根据句意,故选A。
15.【答案】A。
【译文】”和我妈妈交谈的人是我们的数学老师”可能不具备哪一项含义?
【解析】本题考查句意理解。名词后用现在分词作定语多数表示正在进行的动作,也可表示一般的动作。四个选项中,后三项表示的时间都是现在,而第一个选项表示的是将来。但是,表示将来时的非谓语动词通常用不定式结构,故选A。
16.【答案】A
【译文】下列哪个句子的语法不正确?
【解析】本题考查语法规则。在主动句中,若省略to的不定式作宾语补足语,变为被动句时必须补出该不定式的to,故选项A语法有误,正确的句子应为He was seen to enter the building。故选A。
17.【答案】D
【译文】除了       ,下列所有句子都表示将来的行为。
【解析】本题考查句意理解。选项D意为“她的工作是照顾病人”,其中is to take care of the sick是系表结构, 表示现在的状态,故答案为D。选项A意为“他正要投篮”,其中is about to shoot a basket是 be about to do的结构,表示即将发生的行为;选项B意为“今天下午我要去看牙医”,其中am seeing the dentist是用现在进行时表示将来的动作;选项C意为“柱子要倒了”,其中is going to fall down是be going to do的结构,表示有迹象要发生某事。故选D。
18.【答案】A
【译文】在“I have dressed up properly for this meeting, which was supposed to be my yearly appraisal”一句中,斜体词是       
【解析】本题考查功能词汇。派生词是在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或然相反的新词,yearly是名词year +形容词/副词后缀-ly构成的派生词,所以选项A为答案。B”复合词”是由两个或两个以上的词合在一起构成的词,故排除;该句中yearly是形容词,作定语修饰其后的名词appraisal,故排除C选项adverb“副词”和D选项noun“名词”。故选A。
19.【答案】D
【译文】这种风险很明显,且在不断增加,一个审慎之人现在就应该准备一份保单了。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。原句是一个含蓄虚拟条件句,句首的介词短语with the risks obvious and growing相当于虚拟条件句if the risks were obvious and growing,后半句则相当于虚拟条件句的主句,该句表示与现在的事实相反,主句应该是主语+ should/would/could/might + do。选项A和B并非虚拟语气,故排除;选项C表示与过去的事实相反,与原句的意思不符,故排除。故选D。
20.【答案】C
【译文】下列哪个句子不是省略句?
【解析】本题考查省略句题。选项A省略了介词in,完整的句子应该是She spent five hours in previewing her lessons.;选项B省略了关系代词that,完整的句子应该是I’ll give you all that I have.;选项D省略了谓语动词do,完整的句子应该是We’ll do the best we can do.。Let’s do the dishes.的句子成分完整,不是省略句,故选C。
21.【答案】D
【译文】今天天气不错。咱们去钓鱼吧,好吗?
【解析】本题考查反意疑问句。Let’s引导的祈使句,反意疑问句须用shall we,以表示征
求对方的意见,故选D。
22.【答案】C
【译文】如果洋面没有冰的话,风暴的线路便会再往北移,使北美草原没有降雨。
【解析】本题考查非谓语动词。这里的depriving the plains of North America of rainfall是现在分词短语作storm paths would move further north的伴随状语。deprive sb./sth. of sth.是一个固定搭配,意为“剥夺某人/某物的……”。故选C。
23.【答案】D
【译文】要不是他有勇气,这场战役必然失利。
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气。本题考查含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气,but for意为“要不是……”,主句与过去事实相反, 故选D。
24.【答案】D
【译文】要不是因为洪水,船应该已经按时到达目的地了。
【解析】本题考査虚拟语气和介词短语。根据主句中的would have reached its destination判断,该句应该是一个虚拟条件句,表示与过去事实相反,因此选择介词短语but for,意为“要不是……”。in case of意为“假设, 万一”;in spite of意为“虽然,尽管”;because of意为“因为”,均不符合句意。故选D。
25.【答案】D
【译文】第二次世界大战,正如早些时候1914年的那次(第一次世界大战)一样,激起了公众对这个国家人力资源的身心健康的关注。
【解析】本题考查指代呼应。as用于省略句表示方式,其后主谓要倒装,再根据主句中的prompted—词,可判断答案为as did。故选D。
26.【答案】D
【译文】央行正忙于估算实体经济中的货币circulation。画线部分的意思是_____。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。rotation意为“自转”;reserve意为“存储”;volume意为“容量”;cycling意为“流通”。根据语境,circulation意为“货币的流通”,故选D。
27.【答案】B
【译文】腐栏的植物或许会对它们毗邻的counterparts造成损害。画线部分的意思是_____。
【解析】本题考查名词辨析。rivalry意为“对手”;healthy plant意为“健康的植物”;its own organs意为“其自身器官”;insects意为“昆虫”。根据语境,counterparts意为“腐烂植物周边的健康植物”,故选B。
28.【答案】C
【译文】我们已经表明我们不会屈服于压力。
【解析】本题考查动词辨析。yield to意为“屈服;投降”,符合句意。twist意为“捻;拧;扭伤;编织”;shrink意为“收缩;畏缩”;settle意为“解决;安排;使……定居”。故选C。
29.【答案】A
【译文】他还建议国会缩短技艺精湛的工人获得永久居民身份的时间。
【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。permanent意为“永久的,永恒的;不变的”,侧重指总是处于相同的情况和地位, 可长期持续下去,永久不变,permanent resident为习惯搭配,意为“永久性居民”,故A为答案。perpetual意为“永久的;不断的;无期限的”,侧重指保持永久不变,没有中断的行为,永无止境地持续下去;eternal意为“永恒的;不朽的”,侧重指永远存在;everlasting意为“永恒的;接连不断的”,侧重指持续不尽,或指开始后一直进行下去。故选A。
30.【答案】C
【译文】设备和技术的升级并不一定能解决这个问题。
【解析】本题考查副词搭配。necessarily意为“必要地;必定地,必然地”,符合句意。virtually意为“事实上,几乎;实质上”;rarely意为“很少地,难得,罕有地”;practically意为“实际地;几乎;事实上”。故选C。
PART IV CLOZE
【精解精析】
31.B【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格位于情态动词can和名词短语weight loss之间,因此应填入动词原形,与can一起作句子的谓语。此处句意为:现在,新的研究已证明,这一辛辣的食物通过加快新陈代谢可以       减肥。由本段首句和末句可知,我们早就认为红辣椒可以帮助我们减肥,有一项研究也表明辣椒素可以帮助燃烧掉体内的脂肪。本句中的the fiery food指的就是首句中的chillies “辣椒”,因此空格处填入的动词应表示“有助于”之意,结合备选项可知,aid“促进”符合题意。故选B。
32.I【解析】本题考查名词辨析。空格位于the和that之间,因此空格处应填入名词作后面that引导的定语从句的先行词。此处句意为:辣椒素——为辣椒提供热量的        ——可以帮助燃烧掉体内的脂肪。根据常识,备选名词中的ingredient“成分”符合题意,在此处表示“辣椒素是辣椒的一种成分”。故选I。
33.N【解析】本题考查名词辨析。分析句子结构可知,The        to eat fatty foods为句子的主语,因此空格处应填入单数名词作主语部分的中心词,且该名词可与后面的形容词strong搭配。此处句意为:对许多人来说,吃高脂食物的——经常很强烈,以至于即使他们正极力减少热量的摄入,也无法抵制吃高脂食物……。备选名词中,temptation“引诱,诱惑”符合题意。故选N。
34.M【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。分析句子结构可知,fatty or       foods作eating的宾语,空格位于并列连词or之后,因此应填入形容词,与fatty —起修饰foods。空格处填入的形容词应同fatty—样, 也含有“热量高”之意,备选形容词中,sugary “含糖的,甜的”符合题意。故选M。
35. L【解析】本题考查名词辨析。分析句子结构可知,a       to this problem作provide的宾语,空格位于不定冠词a和介词to之间,因此应填入名词,且该名词能与to this problem搭配。此处句意为:现在研究人员认为,辣椒素能够提供这一问题的;不需要限制饮食,辣椒素就可以加快新陈代谢。备选名词中,solution“解决,解决方法”符合题意。
36.K【解析】动词辨析题。分析句子结构可知,本句主干为white fat cells       up calories and store them as fat,       up和store并列作句子的谓语,因此空格处应填入动词原形,且该词能与up搭配。此处句意为:在人体内,白色脂肪细胞       卡路里并以脂肪的形式储存它们。结合后两句对白色脂肪和棕色脂肪的对比介绍可知,棕色脂肪可以燃烧热量,是“好”脂肪,而白色脂肪被认为是“坏”脂肪,其作用应当与棕色脂肪相反,因此,备选动词中,soak (up)“吸收”符合题意。故选K。
37.D【解析】本题考查形容词辨析。空格位于定冠词the和名词type之间,因此空格处应
填入名词或形容词或形容词性的分词作定语修饰type。此处句意为:这种       类型在啤酒肚、有赘肉的腰上和大腿上比较明显,这几个部位上的赘肉也是节食者的顽强敌人;the     .type指的是white fat“白色脂肪”。结合下一句可知,白色脂肪被认为是“坏”脂肪,因此空格处也应填入具有否定含义的词,备选项中,dreaded“可怕的,令人忧虑的”符合题意。
38.C【解析】形容词辨析题。空格所在句主谓宾齐全,故       with a high-fat diet应作后置定语修饰obesity,因此空格处应填入形容词或分词。此处句意为:激活这一受体抑制与脂肪含量高的饮食       的肥胖。备选项中,associated“有关联的,相关的”符合题意。故选C。
39.G【解析】本题考查动词辨析。空格位于because引导的原因状语从句中,该从句缺少谓语动词,因此空格处应填入动词。此处句意为:他们认为,这是因为它       “坏”的白色脂肪细胞变成燃烧能量的“好”的棕色脂肪细胞。本句中的this指的是上文提到的suppresses obesity“抑制肥胖”,根据“抑制肥胖”与后面的“‘坏’的白色脂肪细胞变成燃烧能量的‘好’的棕色脂肪细胞”的关系可知,备选项中的induces“诱发”符合题意。故选G。
40.F【解析】本题考查副词辨析。分析句子结构可知,空格位于who引导的定语从句中,该从句修饰another group of mice,从句基本结构完整,因此空格处应填入副词修饰动词engineered“改变(动植物等的)基因结构”。备选副词中,genetically“遗传学地,基因地”符合题意。故选F。
PARTV READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A
PASSAGE ONE
41. B【解析】推断题。作者在第三段中引用了 De Beers的例子,说它“将宝石存放起来制造一种相于珍贵的稀缺”,并在本段最后一句总结说充足会滋生出一种不满足的感觉,可见B的说法与该例证说明的道理相符合,故选B。
42.A【解析】细节题。根据关键词music和silence定位至第四段。该段的首句的主题词是contemplation,而第二句以音乐相比喻,说音乐中的沉默十分重要,这与作者强调human experience中应该有contemplation—样,故选A。
43. B【解析】推断题。作者比较明确地评价Mr. Harris的观点是在文章最后两段。作者首先在第五段开头就指出Harris并不极端或保守,他的辩论是谨慎的,并且旁征博引、广泛调査,可见其辩论是合理的,故选B。
PASSAGE TWO
44.A【解析】推断题。由题干中的Sir Martin定位至文章第二和第三段:文章第三段介绍他曾任剑桥大学三一学院的教师,直至2012年,此后也一直以“准退休”状态仍参与大学事务。可见他多年来一直参与科学教育,故选A。
45. C【解析】细节题。由题干中的science fiction定位至第三段。由该段第三、四句可知,马丁爵士建议学生读科幻小说的原因是因为它“more stimulating”,再联系上段中他对教师们扼杀学生热情的批评,可知他在此处提及科幻小说是因为它可以培养兴趣,激发热情,故选C。
46. C【解析】细节题。根据关键词Mr. Willetts定位至第四段和第五段。从文章表面看来,Willetts和嘲讽他的人争论的焦点似乎是恐龙和宇宙对于引导学生对科学感兴趣是否有重要意义,但联系前文可知这两样东西代表的是学生对于科学的热情和好奇心,故选C。
PASSAGE THREE
47. D【解析】本题考查this faculty的指代含义,出题点在条件句式处(Although.)。根据题干信息词定位到原文第四段。第四段首句提到,虽然它们食欲极佳,日夜不停地吃,但是海参也有能力停下来并且将新陈代谢率降到很低的水平,这样提供给它们食物的其他生物有机体就有机会繁殖了。接下来第二句提到,如果不是因为这一本领(If it were not for this faculty...),它们就会在短时间内吃掉所有可吃的食物,最后很可能会饿死。由此可知this faculty就是指前文的the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate,即指它们能把新陈代谢率降到很低的水平,故选D。
48. A【解析】本题的出题点在文章结尾的条件句式处(if...)。最后一段末句提到,即使轻轻地触摸海参,或者水温太高,或者水体污染严重,海参都会做出反应:喷出自己的内脏,
再生等。这反映出海参是很敏感的, 故选A。
PASSAGE FOUR
49.B【解析】本题出题点在人物观点处(I do not believe that...)。根据题干信息词misanthropist将答案锁定在文章首段第四句。首段第四句提到,“我”不相信可以找到这样一个能与尘世的喧嚣完全隔绝的地方,这个地方是misanthropist’s heaven,由此可知misanthropist的含义为B。故选B。
50.B【解析】本题出题点在人物细节描写处。根据题干信息词Joseph将答案锁定在文章第十段。第十段描述了Joseph这个人,他在接待新房客的时候表情怪异,态度也并不友好,故选B。
SECTION B
PASSAGE ONE
51. Watch out for the changes caused by technology.
【解析】推断题。根据题干提示定位至最后一段。作者在此段引用Harris的原话,说明每一项技术都会使人们与自己生活的某一部分疏远,即改变人类生活,但是人们对这些变化应该notice(注意),故Watch out for the changes caused by technology为答案。
PASSAGE TWO
52.Students should be more involved in practical science operation.
【解析】推断题。根据题干定位至最后一段。作者在该段第二、三句中指出,初中教师认为没有必要教授实际的科学技能,因此造成学生对科学学习和参与科学工作准备不足,可见作者认为学生应该更多地参与科学实践活动,故Students should be more involved in practical science operation为答案。
PASSAGE THREE
53.It helps them to protect themselves from danger.
【解析】本题的出题点在因果关系句式处(because...)。题目问:为什么海参的身体形状非常重要?根据题干信息词the shape of sea cucumbers定位到原文第三段末句。该句提到,通常这种生物是黄瓜状的,也因此而得名,因为它们生活在岩石上,它们的这种形状加上它们的灵活性,使得它们能挤进裂缝里,躲避食肉动物和洋流,由此可以推断海参的形状可以帮助它们保护自己免受危险。

54.The eating habits of sea cucumbers.
【解析】本题考查段落大意,需通读全段,重点找出中心句。题目问:文章第四段主要讨论了什么?第四段提到了海参既可以大量进食,又可以长时间不吃任何东西,由于海参有这一本领,海参的食物得以有机会繁殖,从而保证海参长期有食物。由此可知本段主要介绍的是海参的进食习惯。
PASSAGE FOUR
55.It shows what the house was like in stormy weather.
【解析】本题出题点在文章末段。根据题干信息词Wuthering Heights将答案锁定在文章末段。末段解释了以 Wuthering Heights作为住宅名称的原因,就是用来形容在暴风雨天气这个地方的房屋等的状况 (descriptive of the atmospheric tumult to which its station is exposed in stormy weather)。
PART VI WRITING
【写作指南】
  本题的主旨是要求考生就“投资体育活动”给出自己的观点,属于观点论证型文章。分析题目中的提纲可知,文章可以按照下面的结构展开:
  第一段阐述现象,并提出自己的观点:目前在大学里通常能看到宽敞明亮的教学楼和图书馆,但也能看到许多学生挤在一块凹凸不平的运动场上打球。这种对比凸显了大学重视学科教育的同时,却忽视了学生体质方面的锻炼。接着提出自己的观点:大学应该在对教育设施大力投资的同时,也要加大对体育教育方面的投入。
  第二段论证自己的观点,强调大学教育的目的不只是为了教授学生学科知识,还要培养学生的其他技能,体育活动可以培养学生的团队合作意识,帮助学生养成良好的生活习惯。因此学校应该提供宽敞的运动场、良好的运动器材,鼓励学生多做运动。
第三段进行总结,再次强调大学对体育活动投资的重要性。

【高分范文】

Money for Sports Activities

    In campuses, we often see spacious academic buildings and well-equipped libraries. Simultaneously, we also notice that many students are playing balls on the uneven playground. There are always some complaints from students that universities spend little money on sports activities. Traditionally, universities attach greater importance to academic facilities such as the school library, while leaving students’ other needs aside. Although it is important to provide adequate funding for academic services,as far as I am concerned, it is also of importance to fund sports activities equally.
    A student’s primary education goal is to pursue knowledge. Therefore, the school library is quite essential. However, a student’s education does not consist of learning academic subjects only. It is also important for students to develop other skills, such as teamwork, and healthy habits that will last for a lifetime. One way to do this is to encourage more participation in sports activities. Therefore, universities should set aside more money to provide sites and fitness equipment for students attending sports activities and encourage students to get away from academic studies temporarily to do some exercise.
    In conclusion, universities are obliged to provide students with a well- balanced education that helps them develop a variety of skills. Taking this reason into account, the importance of funding for sports activities cannot be ignored.

【闪光词汇】

spacious  adj.宽敞的
uneven  adj.凹凸不平的
adequate  adj.足够的
primary  adj.主要的
consist  of由……组成,包括